Completed PAMS Projects


Tool to assess environmental and health risks of integrated human and animal waste management in Vietnam
Duration: January 2012 to June 2013
Executing Agency: Vietnam Public Health Association (VPHA)
Partners: Swiss TPH
In this PAMS, a tool was developed to assess the environmental and health impacts of both human and animal waste in Vietnam. Environmental impacts were assessed using Material Flow Analysis (MFA). Health impacts were measured using epidemiology and quantitative microbial risk assessment. These methods were applied to identify the best practices of human and animal waste management in rural communities. High-profile local stakeholders were involved in this project, including the Vietnam Public Health Association (VPHA), the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, and the Ministry of Health. Risk assessment in general and microbial risk assessment in human excreta and pig manure are very new approaches in Vietnam. Thanks to the activities implemented in this PAMS since November 2011, such risk assessment methods are increasingly acknowledged and appreciated by health staff, lecturers, researchers, and policymakers.


Promotion of appropriate sanitation as a means to control hygiene-related public health priorities in Lao PDR
Duration: January 2011 to May 2013
Executing Agency: National Institute of Public Health, Lao PDR
Partners: Swiss TPH
This PAMS originally aimed to use a community participation and empowerment approach (CLTS) in order to increase adequate sanitation (e.g. latrines) and its utilisation among selected pilot communities in the Mekong Islands. In November 2010, a community sensitisation process regarding open defecation was started in the four target villages. According to the CLTS recommendations, villagers were asked to mark the places where they normally defecate and discussions were held with key representatives of local opinions. Six months after the initial intervention, only a handful of new latrines were constructed. However, discussions were launched in the villages belonging to Done Long Island. It was evident in the follow-up visits that intense discussions took place in the villages. However, latrine construction was not begun. Rather, the village leaders informed the project staff that all the households were very interested in constructing suitable, long-lasting latrines, and some proposed expanding it to include a bath and/or shower. They asked whether support could be provided for each latrine, including the slab and a substructure tube. In six months (until December 2011), 350 latrines were constructed, corresponding to 85% sanitation coverage. Latrines were also constructed in local schools and pagodas. The project team concluded that CLTS, while highly recommended and successful in many parts of the world, did not function as expected in this context, because the communities already desired better and longer-lasting latrines.


Supporting Integrated Spatial Planning and building respective capacities in the environment sector at WERI in the Lao PDR
Duration: September 2010 to May 2012
Executing Agency: Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute (WERI) of the Water Resources and Environment Administration (WREA), Lao PDR
Partners: CDE
This project sought to improve evidence-based planning and priority setting on the part of Lao government agencies. For this, data of from the departments of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MoNRE) were collected, documented, and made accessible. Within MoNRE, the databases are used for spatial analyses and integrated spatial planning. For example, the Water Resource Centre uses satellite images generated by the Remote Sensing Centre (RSC) to update land cover data employed in their hydrological models. The databases thus contribute to collaborations within MoNRE and make spatial analyses and planning more evidence-based. The project also introduced a new data retention system to store and back up data. Finally, the project included on-the-job capacity development within MoNRE.


Innovative sanitation approach by coupling of ecological reuse system with health risks determination: A demonstration case at public school
Duration: May 2010 to August 2011
Executing Agency: Regional Coordinating Office of JACS-SEA, School of Environment Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology
Partners: Sandec/Eawag
In this PAMS, a demonstration unit of Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland (VFCW) was constructed in a public school in Bangkok, Thailand. According to NCCR North-South research, VFCW is an effective means of faecal sludge treatment -- but it has not been extensively field-tested. To enhance local participation, teachers and students from the public school were involved in the project, as well as monks and local authorities. Once finished, the constructed wetland demonstrated the potential and benefits of natural wastewater treatment and ecological reuse. Further, teachers and monks received training in operation and maintenance of the system. They were especially shown how to avoid health risks from pathogen exposure during treatment and reuse of waste. Finally, to ensure overall community awareness, the trainees shared their knowledge with other residents. 
Download policy brief (English / PDF 1.1 MB)^


Development of a training module on health risk assessment related to water, sanitation and food in Vietnam
Duration: October 2009 to December 2010
Executing Agency: The Hanoi School of Public Health (HSPH)
Partners: Sandec/Eawag
In this PAMS, a training module on health risk assessment related to water supply, sanitation, and food safety was developed and tested. A national training course with 40 health professionals and policymakers was conducted. The course provided participants with evidence-based knowledge on health risks caused by pathogens (virus, bacteria, and protozoa) in water and foods, and supplied them technical knowledge related to microbial risk assessment. The training materials were compiled in a manual to be published in Vietnamese. An English translation is planned for use in other countries such as Lao PDR or Cambodia.
Download Outcome Highlight (PDF / 897 KB)


Participatory improvement of urban environmental sanitation services in Hatsady Tai, Vientiane, Lao PDR
Duration: February 2008 to March 2009
Executing Agency: Public Works and Transportation Institute (PTI), Vientiane
Partners: Sandec/Eawag; Water Resources and Environment Administration (WREA)
This PAMS project helped to improve urban environmental sanitation services in Hatsady Tai, Vientiane, by adopting a demand-led and participatory planning approach. The project benefited about 275 residents in the centre of the village by providing improved urban environment sanitation services, i.e. stormwater drainage, liquid and solid waste management, thereby fostering community-level capacity building and awareness-raising in environmental health and gender equality. This PAMS tested the Household-Centred Environmental Sanitation (HCES) approach, which was then further developed and adapted in other PAMS.
Download Outcome Highlights (PDF / 664 KB)


Effective sanitation systems through stakeholder involvement: A case study of faecal sludge management in Thailand 
Duration: July 2007 to June 2008
Executing Agency: NCCR North-South Regional Coordination Office, Bangkok
Partners: Sandec/Eawag
A previous PAMS in the Baanklang district in Bangkok focused on the development of technical solutions for effective faecal sludge management. Limited involvement of local people and political authorities resulted in the malfunction of the developed fecal management system, and the technology could not be replicated in other municipalities. This second PAMS aimed at identifying the social and political factors that foster or hinder effective faecal sludge management in the Baangklang district. In a series of workshops, researchers and 500 stakeholders discussed problems, and developed potential solutions. Local authorities learned more about the potentials of effective faecal sludge management and are now willing to adopt the technology that was developed previously. Other municipalities expressed their interest in adopting the approach.





For regional PAMS information:
Thammarat Koottatep, Regional Coordinator, Southeast Asia

For general PAMS information:
Eva Maria Heim, Coordinator of Partnership Actions