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The Implications of Changes in Population, Land Use, and Land Management for Surface Runoff in the Upper Nile Basin Area of Ethiopia
Hurni, Hans
Much concern has been raised about population increase in the highlands of Ethiopia and its potential to decrease runoff from the upper Nile Basin to the lowland countries of Sudan and Egypt. The present article examines long-term data on population, land use, land management, rainfall, and surface runoff rates from small test plots (30 m2) and micro-catchments (73–673 ha) in the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Analysis and interpretation of data support the hypothesis that surface runoff and sediment yield from the Ethiopian and Eritrean highlands into the upper Nile Basin have most probably increased in the long term due to intensified land use and land degradation induced by population increase, when seen in a historical perspective. Mountain Research and Development 2005, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 147–154 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Importance des pneus abandonnés dans la prolifération d’Aedes aegypti en milieu urbain
Kone, Atioumouna
L’analyse montre que les pneus abandonnés représentent en moyenne 50% de l’ensemble des gîtes larvaires de la ville de Sassandra. Ils sont les plus productifs car 70% d’entre eux en moyenne contiennent des larves d’Aedes aegypti. Ainsi, ce travail met en évidence, le rôle prépondérant que jouent les pneus abandonnés dans la prolifération d’Aedes aegytpi dans la ville de Sassandra. Ainsi, la lutte antivectorielle prend une place de choix dans la lutte contre la fièvre jaune. Médecine d’Afrique Noire 2006, Vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 167-170 Hard copy available from: Médecine d'Afrique Noire.
Mycobacterium bovis Isolates from Tuberculous Lesions in Chadian Zebu Carcasses
Diguimbaye, Colette
"This slaughterhouse study in Chad shows higher proportions of Mycobacterium bovis isolates among Mbororo than Arabe zebu cattle. Spoligotyping shows a homogenetic population structure for M. bovis and lack of spacer 30, as were found in neighboring Cameroon and Nigeria. This finding suggests transborder and ongoing transmission between cattle." Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. Available online from: Emerging Infectious Diseases Download PDF from: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Relationships between Resource Governance and Resource Conflict
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
This paper highlights the relationships between resource rights, governance practices and conflict in Nepal. The discussion is focused on policies, strategies, laws and regulations, and decisions and actual governing practices in natural resources. The good governance framework is used as a conceptual basis to analyse the relationships. This framework is for the purpose of this paper consensus oriented, participatory, guided by the rule of law, effective and efficient, accountable and transparent, responsive, equitable and inclusive. Within this framework, the paper examines the role of resource governance in creating or minimising scarcity and conflict in Nepal. It is based on my current research project on ‘livelihood security, environmental security and conflict mitigation’ in Nepal. It highlights power relations, feelings of injustice, mistrust, the intervention of new technologies, contradiction between customary practices and statutory laws as sources of research. Resource conflicts produce both positive and negative consequences and alter existing social relations, as they induce change in resource management regimes, policy process, livelihood strategies, land use patterns, gender relations, power structures, and individual and collective behaviour. This paper also establishes the linkages between resource conflict and the ongoing Maoist insurgency in Nepal. Journal of Legal Pluralism 2004, No. 50, pp. 71-100 Available for purchase from: Journal of Legal Pluralism
Lessons From Two Long-term Hydrological Studies in Kenya and Sri Lanka
Mungai, D. N.
The rate and characteristics of land use change in tropical watersheds due to changing demographic, economic and policy factors have important consequences for catchment health and environmental services. Few tropical watershed studies have lasted long enough to facilitate a credible analysis of the long-term effects of land use change on the environmental services provided by watersheds. This paper examines the driving forces and patterns of historical land use change in two long-term watershed studies in Kenya and Sri Lanka and their hydrological impacts. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 2004, 104, pp. 135–143 Available online from: Science Direct
Seasonal epidemiology of ticks and aspects of cowdriosis in N’Dama village cattle in the Central Guinea savannah of Côte d’Ivoire
Knopf, Lea
In the Central Guinea savannah of Côte d’Ivoire, cattle breeding started only 30 years ago. The impact of parasitism on the overall health status and productivity of the trypanotolerant N’Dama cattle in this area is unknown. In close collaboration with national veterinary institutions and local farmers, we studied spectrum, burden and seasonal dynamics of ticks (including aspects of cowdriosis) on N’Dama village cattle. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2002, Vol. 53, Issues 1-2, pp. 21-30 Available online from: ScienceDirect
Sustainable Development and International Cooperation in the Eastern Nile Basin
Amer, Salah El-Din
The following article provides an overview of issues related to international cooperation and water use in the Eastern Nile Basin, thereby introducing the following three papers written from an Ethiopian, Sudanese and Egyptian perspective respectively. Basic environmental and socio-economic data is given. The various national interests and international initiatives in the Nile Basin are introduced. Key areas of consensus between the authors, as well as open questions that still need to be worked on, are elaborated. The article also describes the unique process of how the six authors from three countries worked on this joint publication in the Nile Dialogue Workshop of 2002. Key conclusions are that sustained, non-polemical communication can lead to cooperation, and that cooperation is the cornerstone to sustainable water development. Aquatic Sciences 2005, (67): pp. 3-14. Available for purchase from: SpringerLink
Women's Participation in Argentina's Picketing Movement
Freytes Frey, Ada Cora
"Based on case study analysis of four picketing organizations in Argentina, this article analyzes the impact of women's participation in the picketing movements, on the ways in which women think about themselves and the social roles they claim. Women's initial involvement in the picketing movements was tied closely to their performance of the traditional roles of mother and wife. Over time, and as a result of women's social participation, these roles acquired new meaning. Women began to reject certain stereotypes linked to the feminine, and to challenge some aspects of the gendered division of tasks and responsibilities. Redefinition of feminine roles, however, has limitations, which are evident through analysis of the unequal participation of women in the movements’ leadership." Journal of Developing Societies 2007, Volume 23, Issues 1-2, pp. 243-258. Available from: Journal of Developing Societies
Genetic Diversity in Mycobacterium ulcerans Isolates from Ghana Revealed by a Newly Identified Locus Containing a Variable Number of Tandem Repeats
Hilty, Markus
"The molecular typing methods used so far for Mycobacterium ulcerans isolates have not been able to identify genetic differences among isolates from Africa. This apparent lack of genetic diversity among M. ulcerans isolates is indicative of a clonal population structure. We analyzed the genetic diversity of 72 African isolates, including 57 strains from Ghana, by variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing based on a newly identified polymorphic locus designated ST1 and the previously described locus MIRU 1. Three different genotypes were found in Ghana, demonstrating for the first time the genetic diversity of M. ulcerans in an African country. While the ST1/MIRU 1 allele combination BD/BAA seems to dominate in Africa, it was only rarely found in isolates from Ghana, where the combination BD/B was dominant and observed in all districts studied. A third variant genotype (C/BAA) was found only in the Amansie-West district. The results indicate that new genetic variants of M. ulcerans emerged and spread within Ghana and support the potential of VNTR-based typing for genotyping of M. ulcerans." Journal of Bacteriology 2006, Vol. 188, No. 4, p. 1462-1465 Available from: Journal of Bacteriology
Ohne Sauberkeit keine Gesundheit. Hygiene im Alltag von Dar es Salaam, Tansania
Obrist, Brigit
«Gesundheit» ist ein Zauberwort der Moderne. Es ist ein positives Konzept, das wir mit vielen Bereichen des alltäglichen Lebens in Beziehung setzen, von Umwelt über Ernährung bis hin zu Arbeit , Freizeit und sozialen Beziehungen. Was bedeutet «Gesundheit» jedoch für Menschen, die in einer ganz anderen Umgebung leben, nämlich einer schnell wachsenden afrikanischen Stadt? Tsantsa 2002, 7: 66-76 Download
Assessing nutrient flows in septic tanks by eliciting expert judgement
Montangero, Agnes
"Simple models based on the physical and biochemical processes occurring in septic tanks, pit and urine diversion latrines were developed to determine the nutrient flows in these systems. Nitrogen and phosphorus separation in different output materials from these on-site sanitation installations were thus determined. Moreover, nutrient separation in septic tanks was also assessed through literature values and by eliciting expert judgement. Use of formal expert elicitation technique proved to be effective, particularly in the context of developing countries where data is often scarce but expert judgement readily available. In Vietnam, only 5–14% and 11–27% of the nitrogen and phosphorus input, respectively, are removed from septic tanks with the faecal sludge. The remaining fraction leaves the tank via the liquid effluent. Unlike septic tanks, urine diversion latrines allow to immobilise most of the nutrients either in form of stored urine or dehydrated faecal matter. These latrines thus contribute to reducing the nutrient load in the environment and lowering consumption of energy and non-renewable resources for fertiliser production." Water Research 2007, Volume 41, Number 5, pp. 1052-1064 Available from: ScienceDirect
Solid–liquid separation of faecal sludge using drying beds in Ghana
Cofie, Olufunke
This study investigated the possibility of recycling nutrients in human excreta and municipal solid waste for use in agriculture. It reports on the use of drying beds in separating solid and liquid fractions of faecal sludge (FS) so that the solids can be co-composted and the organic matter and part of the nutrients captured for urban agriculture... Water Research 2006, 40:1, pp. 75-82 Available Online from: Science Direct
Common Property Resource Management, Institutional Change and Conflicts in African Floodplain Wetlands
Haller, Tobias
Most contemporary discussions on African development since independence forty years ago emphasize the notion that Africa is still “mal parti”. Many show discontent for what has been achieved in this time, despite that “Africa works” as is suggested by Chabal and Daloz in their widely discussed book (1999). I will focus on the issue of sustainable development in Africa. This will be illustrated by the presentation of a common property resource management research project (on fisheries, pastures, wildlife, water for irrigation, and forests). The question of why the overuse of natural resources and conflicts over resources are occurring in modern day Africa is addressed here. This research project is called “Common Property Institutions and Power Relations: Resource Management, Change and Conflicts in African Floodplain Wetlands”. It focuses on six African floodplain wetlands in semi-arid zones (Internal Niger Delta in Mali, Hadejia-Jama'ara in Northern Nigeria, Logone Floodplain in Northern Cameroon, Pangani Floodplain in Tanzania, Okavango Delta in Botswana and Kafue Flats in Zambia (Haller 2001)) [...]. The African Anthropologist 2002, Vol 9, No.1, pp. 25-35 Available from: African Journals Online
Urban malaria in the Sahel: prevalence and seasonality of presumptive malaria and parasitaemia at primary care level in Chad
Othnigué, Nadjitolnan
The objective of this study was to assess malaria prevalence rates and seasonal patterns among clinically diagnosed malaria cases at the level of primary care facilities in an urban Sahelian setting. Clinical diagnosis of malaria has a very low positive predicted value in this low endemicity urban setting, and its low specificity leads to inappropriate care for a large proportion of patients. This has a major impact on economic costs for health services and households. In the Sahel, systematic use of microscopy-based diagnosis and/or rapid diagnostic tests should be considered to appropriately manage malaria and non-malaria cases. Tropical Medicine & International Health 2006, Vol. 11, Issue 2, page 204 Available for purchase from: Blackwell Synergy
Ethiopia and the Eastern Nile Basin
Arsano, Yacob
Ethiopia is the main source of the Nile River, and the country urgently needs water for irrigation and hydro-electric power development. To-date, however, Ethiopia is the country in the Eastern Nile basin that uses the least amount of water from the Nile run-off. There is no basin-wide agreement on the utilization and management of the water resources of the Nile Basin. Unilateral planning and implementation approaches have hindered the possibilities of cooperation and coordinated development. On the national level, economic and institutional capacities are also limited. Past initiatives as well as the current Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) are outlined regarding how far these dilemmas are dealt with. The paper ends with suggestions on how to deal with open questions and lessons learned from the ongoing NBI process. Aquatic Sciences 2005, (67): pp. 15-27. Available for purchase from: SpringerLink
Decentralised Composting in Bangladesh
Zurbruegg, Christian
"The paper describes experiences of Waste Concern, a research based Non-Governmental Organisation, with a community-based decentralised composting project in Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The composting scheme started its activities in 1995 with the aim of developing a low-cost technique for composting of municipal solid waste, which is well-suited to Dhaka's waste stream, climate, and socio-economic conditions along with the development of public–private–community partnerships in solid waste management and creation of job opportunities for the urban poor. Organic waste is converted into compost using the “Indonesian Windrow Technique”, a non-mechanised aerobic and thermophile composting procedure. [...]" Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2005, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp. 281-292 Available from: ScienceDirect
Farmer and Conventional Perspectives on Conservation in Western Mexico
Gerritsen, Peter
Establishment of conservation areas has become a standard strategy for protecting biodiversity. Different categories are distinguished, such as those that aim at enhancing local participation. Although rapid evolution has taken place since the 1970s, stimulating participation still challenges conservationists. Understanding the complex issues impacting on participation is a first step in finding more effective methods of conservation. The present article addresses this issue by contrasting farmer and conventional perspectives on conservation. A differentiation between ecologically oriented biodiversity conservation perspectives and livelihood-oriented resource diversity perspectives is proposed. A case study from western Mexico illustrates both perspectives. Mountain Research and Development 2005, Vol. 25, No. 1: pp. 30–36 Available for purchase from: BioOne
Property Rights, Conflicts, and Peace
Goetschel, Laurent
In: Heranando de Soto, Francis Cheneval, editors. 2006. Realizing property rights. Zürich, Rüffer&Rub Publishing House, pp. 186-193 Order from: Rüffer&Rub Publishing House
Evaluation of the discriminatory power of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium bovis strains
Hilty, Markus
The discriminatory power of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing based on 16 known loci (12 MIRUs, 3 ETRs and VNTR 3232) was assessed for Mycobacterium bovis strains collected sequentially at the slaughterhouse of N’Djaména, Chad. Of 67 M. bovis strains analyzed, 67% were clustered. In this study, VNTR typing was highly discriminative with an overall allelic diversity (hoa) of 0.922. We defined five loci (ETR A, B, C and MIRU 26, 27) as highly (h > 0.25), two loci (MIRU 4, and VNTR 3232) as moderately (0.11 < h < 0.25) and three loci (MIRU 16, 20, 31) as poorly (0.01 < h < 0.11) discriminative. Six loci (MIRU 2, 10, 23, 24, 39, and 40) showed no polymorphism at all. VNTR typing of the five highly discriminative loci (h = 0.917) proved to be most appropriate for first line typing of M. bovis strains of Chad and superior than spoligotyping (hsp = 0.789). In contrast to Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, a consensus on VNTR loci needs to be found for M. bovis strains. The selection of a generally agreed set of VNTR loci for molecular discrimination of M. bovis in different geographical settings is discussed. Veterinary Microbiology 2005, Vol. 109, Issues 3-4, pp. 217-222 Available from: ScienceDirect
Urban Environment, Spatial Fragmentation and Social Segration in Latin America
Bolay, Jean-Claude
To ‘‘review the urban question’’ in terms of sustainable development, the premise is formulated that improving infrastructures, equipment and services to preserve the natural and built urban environment is costly and generates expenses of all kinds—at economic and social levels. Without the introduction of equalisation mechanisms, these expenses will increase inequalities between different parts of the urban population... Habitat International 2005, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp. 627-645 Available online from: Science Direct
Civil society, community participation, and the search for sustainable development
Geiser, Urs
In: SDPI [Sustainable Development Policy Institute]. editor. 2003. Sustainable Development and Southern Realities - Past and Future in South Asia. Sustainable Development Policy Institute, City Press, Islamabad, Pakistan, pp. 197-211. Order from: Pakistan Research Group
Attitudinal and Relational Factors Predicting the Use of Solar Water Disinfection
Altherr, Anne-Marie
"Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is an uncomplicated and cheap technology providing individuals with safe drinking water by exposing water-filled plastic bottles to sunlight for 6 hours to kill waterborne pathogens. Two communities were visited, and 81 families (40 SODIS users and 41 nonusers) were interviewed. The relationship between several factors and the intention to use SODIS in the future and actual use were tested. The results showed that intention to use and actual use are mainly related to an overall positive attitude, intention to use is related to the use of SODIS by neighbors, and actual use is related to knowledge about SODIS; SODIS users reported a significantly lower incidence in diarrhea than SODIS nonusers. These results suggest that promotion activities should aim at creating a positive attitude, for example, by choosing a promoter that is able to inspire confidence in the new technology." Health Education & Behavior 2006, published online 17 November 2006 Available from: SAGE JOURNALS Online
Anthropogenic dynamic and transformation of Kyrgyz range vegetation
Shigaeva, Jyldyz
In Russian. Proceedings of IUK Conference, November 25-26, 2005. Vol. 4. Bishkek, pp 225-235. Download
From state collapse to duty-free shop: Somalia’s path to modernity
Hagmann, Tobias
African Affairs 2005, Vol. 104, No. 416, pp. 525-535 Available from: Oxford Journals
Beyond clannishness and colonialism: understanding political disorder in Ethiopia's Somali Region, 1991–2004
Hagmann, Tobias
This article proposes an alternative interpretation of political disorder in Ethiopia's Somali Regional State since the rise to power of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) in 1991. Some observers have perceived contemporary politics in the former Ogaden as an example of ‘internal colonisation’ by highland Ethiopians. Others attribute political instability to the ‘nomadic culture’ inherent in the Somali clan structure and the ineptness of its political leaders. This study argues that neither of these two politicised narratives grasps the contradictory interactions between the federal Ethiopian government and its Somali periphery, nor the recursive relations between state and society. With reference to the literature on neo-patrimonialism, I elucidate political disorder in the Somali Region by empirically describing hybrid political domination, institutional instability, and patronage relations, showing how neo-patrimonial rule translates into contested statehood in the region and political devices ranging from military coercion to subtle co-optation. Rather than unilateral domination, a complex web of power and manipulation between parts of the federal and regional authorities animates political disorder in Ethiopia's Somali Region. The Journal of Modern African Studies 2005, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 509-536 Available from: Cambridge University Press
Sudan and the Nile Basin
Hamad, Osman El-Tom
The following article gives an overview of Sudanese water development facts and potentials and their regional impact on the other countries sharing the Nile River and beyond. These are set in relation to the unique environmental, socio-economic and political context of Sudan. While the availability of land for irrigation is great, water is limited due to Sudans situation upstream of Egypt and downstream of Ethiopia and the Equatorial Lakes. This geographical position makes Sudan take on a mediative approach to international relations in the Nile Basin. Recent steps to cooperation in the Nile Basin Initiative are presented; they highlight the enormous opportunities that exist in the cooperative development of the Nile. Aquatic Sciences 2005, (67): pp. 28-41 Available from: SpringerLink
Hacia una (re)conceptualización de ciudadanía
Hoffmann, Sabine
Este artículo presenta un esquema analítico de la ciudadanía, el mismo que comprende diferentes dimensiones interrelacionadas. Partiendo de las dimensiones “status versus práctica”, “lo privado versus lo público” y “espacio público” se busca conceptualizar la noción de la participación ciudadana en los espacios públicos. T'inkazos - Revista Boliviana de Ciencias Sociales 2005, No. 18, pp. 81-91 Download
Impact de la démoustication sur les populations d’Aedes aegypti de deux communes de la ville d’Abidjan (Port-Bouët et Yopougon), Côte d'Ivoire
Kone, Atioumouna
Devant les résultats nous pouvons conclure que les pulvérisation aériennes spatiales d'insecticides permettent de réduire les densités de moustique en général et d'Aedes aegypti en particulier mais que cette réduction est de courte durée. Cette réduction est beaucoup plus marquée sur les populations exophagues que d'endophagues d'où la nécessité de tenir compte de la bio écologie des moustiques lors de l'application de cette technique. Dakar Médical 2005, Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 113-117 Download
Etude de la morbidité palustre à l’Hôpital Général d’Adiaké, Côte d’Ivoire de 1998 à 2000
Kone, Atioumouna
Notre travail est une étude rétrospective de la morbidité palustre sur 3 ans (de 1998 à 2000) dans un hôpital général situé en zone lagunaire (Adiaké). Il ressort de cette étude que le tiers (34,79 %) des patients ayant consulté présentait un paludisme et que plus de la moitié des hospitalisations étaient des cas de paludisme. Nous avons noté une légère prédominance féminine (52,11 %) en consultation. La population infanto-juvénile était la plus touchée tant en consultation qu’en hospitalisation avec respectivement 58,38 % et 54,97 % ; elle concerne surtout la tranche d’âge de 1 à 4 ans. Le mois de Juillet pendant ces trois années a enregistré le plus de cas de paludisme. Nous avons constaté que le paludisme se transmet toute l’année avec une légère prédominance à la grande saison des pluies. La principale complication du paludisme qui a occasionné une hospitalisation était l’anémie (82,62 %) qui avait touché les enfants de 0 à 15 ans dans 88, 29 % des cas et les adultes dans 11,71 % des cas. Le paludisme représentait la principale cause de décès en hospitalisation. Ces décès étaient dus dans 81,84 % à l’anémie. Médecine d'Afrique Noire 2005, No. 5203, pp. 188-192 Free online version available from: Médecine d'Afrique Noire. Hard copy available from: Médecine d'Afrique Noire.
Are we Scorpions? The Role of Upstream-Downstream Dialogue in fostering Cooperation in the Nile Basin
Mason, Simon
Water consumed upstream does not flow downstream. Consequently, upstream–downstream relations along a shared river may entail competitive use or even conflict. What is the role of communication in preventing or transforming such behavior? The present article addresses this question based on lessons learned in 3 Dialogue Workshops carried out between 2002 and 2004 in the Eastern Nile Basin, with participants from Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan. It indicates that the danger of upstream–downstream relations is not primarily “scorpion-like” behavior (damaging an opponent), but rather “ostrich-like” behavior (burying one's head in the sand, ignoring unilateral developments). Dialogue is shown to be a key determinant in rectifying this situation, as it is the basis for trust-building, exchange of information, and development of mutually acceptable management options. Other key factors to be considered are the balance of power between highland–lowland actors and the legal/institutional framework governing their interaction. Mountain Research and Development 2005, 25(2), pp. 115-120 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Dynamics of Irrigation Institutions
Menon, Vineetha
Economic and Political Weekly 2005, Vol. 26, February, pp. 893-904 Available from: Economic and Political Weekly
Resource based conflict framing among the Kereyu in the Upper and Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia
Mulugeta, Allemmaya
This article presents aspects of a research project on so-called «violent resource based conflicts» in pastoral areas. It focuses on the question of how various actors of the main involved parties interpret and «frame» conflicts differently. It is a case study conducted among the Kereyu pastoral community in the upper and middle Awash valley of Ethiopia who relate with other neighbouring groups and share common resources through both violent and non-violent conflicts. Tsantsa 2005, 10: pp. 23-26 Download
Spatial risk prediction and mapping of Schistosoma mansoni infections among schoolchildren living in western Côte d'Ivoire
Raso, Giovanna
"The objectives of this study were (1) to examine risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni infection among schoolchildren living in western Côte d'Ivoire, and (2) to carry forward spatial risk prediction and mapping at non-sampled locations [...]. Results showed that age, sex, the richest wealth quintile, elevation and rainfall explained the geographical variation of the school prevalences of S. mansoni infection. The goodness of fit of different spatial models revealed that age, sex and socio-economic status had a stronger influence on infection prevalence than environmental covariates. The generated risk map can be used by decision-makers for the design and implementation of schistosomiasis control in this setting. If successfully validated elsewhere, this approach can guide control programmes quite generally." Parasitology 2005, Vol. 131, Issue 1, pp. 97-108 Available from: Cambridge Univeristy Press
Bringing the Sultan Back In
Hagmann, Tobias
In: Buur L, Kyed H M, editors. State Recognition and Democratisation in Sub-Saharan Africa. A New Dawn for Traditional Authorities? New York: Palgrave, pp. 31-51. Order from: Palgrave Macmillan
Isolation of Salmonella sp. in sludge from septage treatment plant
Sanguinetti, Graciela
"Waste stabilization ponds (WSP) are an often-used option to treat faecal sludges collected from on-site sanitation systems. Since agricultural use is one of the most attractive options for sludge disposal, specific guidelines on the hygienic sludge quality must be fulfilled, such as for viable helminth eggs and Salmonella sp. Although Salmonella isolation methods are well known for other types of samples, they are not suitable for faecal sludge. The reason can be attributed to the co-existence of a native bacterial sludge flora masking Salmonella development, especially if this bacteria is present at low concentrations. [...]" Water Science & Technology 2005, Volume 51, Number 12, pp. 249-252 Available for purchase from: IWA Publishing
Re-evaluating the burden of rabies in Africa and Asia
Knobel, Darryn L.
Rabies remains an important yet neglected disease in Africa and Asia. Disparities in the affordability and accessibility of post-exposure treatment and risks of exposure to rabid dogs result in a skewed distribution of the disease burden across society, with the major impact falling on those living in poor rural communities, in particular children. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2005, Vol. 83, Number 5, pp. 321-400 Download from: The World Health Organisation
Serum Retinol of Chadian Nomadic Pastoralist Women in Relation to their Livestocks' Milk Retinol and beta-Carotene Content
Zinsstag, Jakob
Human serum retinol and livestock milk retinol levels were assessed as part of a study on the health status of Chadian nomadic pastoralists and their livestock in close partnership between Chadian public health and livestock institutions. Our study supports the use of goat and cow milk as an important source of vitamin A in pastoral nomadic settings. However, the levels still require to be complemented further by promoting green leafy vegetables, fruits, and supplements. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 2002, 72(4): 221-228 Available from: Verlag Hans Huber
Moving from sustainable management to sustainable governance of natural resources
Rist, Stephan
"The present paper discusses a conceptual, methodological and practical framework within which the limitations of the conventional notion of natural resource management (NRM) can be overcome. NRM is understood as the application of scientific ecological knowledge to resource management. By including a consideration of the normative imperatives that arise from scientific ecological knowledge and submitting them to public scrutiny, ‘sustainable management of natural resources’ can be recontextualised as ‘sustainable governance of natural resources’. This in turn makes it possible to place the politically neutralising discourse of ‘management’ in a space for wider societal debate, in which the different actors involved can deliberate and negotiate the norms, rules and power relations related to natural resource use and sustainable development. [...]" Journal of Rural Studies 2007, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp. 23-37 Available from: ScienceDirect
Species identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from humans and cattle of Chad
Diguimbaye, Colette
"In Chad, during a study on tuberculosis in humans and cattle, 52 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) strains were isolated. By means of INNO-LiPA, PRA-hsp65 amplification and sequencing of 16S rDNA, NTM species of 25/52 isolates were identified. M. fortuitum complex (8) was the most frequent species, followed by M. nonchromogenicum (4) and M. avium complex (4). PRA method could identify M. fortuitum 3rd variant among isolates derived from cattle specimens. This finding could confirm the existence of farcy in the Chadian cattle population as M. fortuitum 3rd variant and putitative pathogen M. farcinogenes can't be distinguished by the methods used in this study. Half of the NTM isolates could not be specified and we considered them as contaminants from the environment." Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 2006, Vol. 148, No. 5, pp. 251-256 Available to purchase from: Verlag Hans Huber
New Figures for Old Stories: Migration and Remittances in Nepal
Kollmair, Michael
"Labour migration and remittances are major economic mainstays for Nepal’s economy. However, there is still insufficient documentation on scale and significance of this process. Estimations of migration figures suggest that real numbers are several times higher than official statistics show. Therefore this article contributes to the emerging debate of the last years comparing latest national statistics with own empirical data. The paper concludes that the total numbers of migrants calculated by the authors closely corresponds with official statistics, while amount of remittances seems to be higher indeed, highlighting once more that labour migration and remittances are an important mainstay of Nepal’s economy." Migration Letters 2006, Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp. 151-160 Download from: Migration Letters
Migration Patterns and Remittance Transfer in Nepal
Thieme, Susan
"International labour migration is a main livelihood strategy for many people in Nepal. This article analyses the migration process from the perspective of migrants and their non-migrating household members, exploring the institutional regulations that structure the organization of migration and the cash flows involved. The results are based on a case study conducted in Sainik Basti, Western Nepal, in 2002. The article shows that for different destinations there are specific ways of organizing migration. These country specific ways of organizing migration demand specific assets from prospective migrants and their household members and, therefore, influence their choice of destination. Savings are remitted back home mainly by carrying them personally or by using the hundi system. [...]" International Migration 2005, Vol. 43, No. 5, pp. 59–98 Available from: Blackwell Synergy
A model of animal-human brucellosis transmission in Mongolia
Zinsstag, Jakob
"We developed a dynamic model of livestock-to-human brucellosis transmission in Mongolia. The compartmental model considers transmission within sheep and cattle populations and the transmission to humans as additive components. The model was fitted to demographic and seroprevalence data (Rose Bengal test) from livestock and annually reported new human brucellosis cases in Mongolia for 1991–1999 prior to the onset of a mass livestock-vaccination campaign (S19 Brucella abortus for cattle and Rev1 Brucella melitensis for sheep and goat). The vaccination effect was fitted to livestock- and human-brucellosis data from the first 3 years of the vaccination campaign (2000–2002). Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (assessed by the deviance). The simultaneously fitted sheep–human and cattle–human contact rates show that 90% of human brucellosis was small-ruminant derived. Average effective reproductive ratios for the year 1999 were 1.2 for sheep and 1.7 for cattle." Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2005, Vol. 69, Issues 1-2, pp. 77-95 Available from: Science Direct
Potential of cooperation between human and animal health to strengthen health systems
Zinsstag, Jakob
"The WHO ministerial summit held in Mexico City, Mexico, on Nov 16–20, 2004, recognised the pivotal role of strengthened health systems in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in an equity-effective manner. Its resolutions encourage health systems research to include broad societal dimensions. One extension involves closer interaction between human and animal health, for which the US epidemiologist Calvin Schwabe coined the term “one medicine”, to focus attention on the similarity between human and veterinary health interests. [...]" The Lancet 2005, Vol. 366, Issue 9503, pp. 2142-2145 Available online from: The Lancet Download PDF from: The Lancet
Discrete Event Simulation for Exploring Strategies
Huang, Dong-Bin
"This paper presents a model structure aimed at offering an overview of the various elements of a strategy and exploring their multidimensional effects through time in an efficient way. It treats a strategy as a set of discrete events planned to achieve a certain strategic goal and develops a new form of causal networks as an interfacing component between decision makers and environment models, e.g., life cycle inventory and material flow models. The causal network receives a strategic plan as input in a discrete manner and then outputs the updated parameter sets to the subsequent environmental models. Accordingly, the potential dynamic evolution of environmental systems caused by various strategies can be stepwise simulated. It enables a way to incorporate discontinuous change in models for environmental strategy analysis, and enhances the interpretability and extendibility of a complex model by its cellular constructs. It is exemplified using an urban water management case in Kunming, a major city in Southwest China. By utilizing the presented method, the case study modeled the cross-scale interdependencies of the urban drainage system and regional water balance systems, and evaluated the effectiveness of various strategies for improving the situation of Dianchi Lake." Environmental Science & Technology 2007, Vol. 41, Issue 3, pp. 915-921 Available for purchase from: ACS Publications
Bovine tuberculosis: an old disease but a new threat to Africa
Ayele, Wuhib Y.
"Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a disease characterised by progressive development of specific granulomatous le-sions or tubercles in lung tissue, lymph nodes or other organs. Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of the disease. Bovine species, including bison and buffaloes, are susceptible to the disease, but nearly all warm-blooded animals can be affected. All species are not equally susceptible to the disease; some are spill-over (end) hosts and others maintenance hosts. In Africa, bovine TB primarily affects cattle; however, infection in other farm and domestic animals, such as sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and cats, is not uncommon. Wild ruminants and carnivores are also affected and are the natural reservoirs of the infectious agent in the wild. Man is also susceptible to the disease, the highest risk groups being individuals with concomitant HIV/AIDS infection. In Africa, human TB is widely known to be caused by M. tuberculosis; however, an unknown proportion of cases are due to M. bovis. This infection in humans is underreported as a result of the diagnostic limitations of many laboratories in distinguishing M. bovis from M. tuberculosis. None of the national reports submitted to the OIE and WHO by African member states mention the importance of M. bovis in human TB cases. Consumption of unpasteurised milk and poorly heat-treated meat and close contact with infected animals represent the main sources of infection for humans. This review attempts to examine the impact of bovine TB on the health of animals and humans." The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2004, Vol. 8, No. 8, pp. 924-937(14) Freely available from: Ingentaconnect
Approche novatrice des vaccinations en santé publique et en médecine vétérinaire chez les pasteurs au Tchad
Béchir, Mahamat
This report describes a network of public health care workers, veterinarians and nomadic pastoralists that was set up in Chad to increase vaccination coverage to nomadic children and women who had rarely been vaccinated before. The objectives of the project were to provide human vaccination in conjunction with existing veterinary services, to evaluate the feasibility and limitations of such campaigns, to determine what other services could be provided concurrently, and to estimate the savings for public health care cases in comparison with carrying out vaccination separately. The joint vaccination campaign approach is innovative, appreciated by nomadic pastoralists and less expensive than separate vaccination. By using the mobility of veterinarians in remote zones far from health care facilities, vaccination can be provided to nomadic children and women in countries with limited resources. Médecine Tropicale 2004, Vol. 64, No. 5, pp. 497-502 Download
World globalisation, sustainable development and scientific cooperation
Bolay, Jean-Claude
"Development-related questions have been raised periodically for over forty years. Development cooperation, in its turn, is also controversial, especially since its role is to make good intentions real, i.e. transform them into projects, programmes and other policy instruments generating investments that are much more pertinent than mere declarations of intent. Starting from an overview of the links between the profit-oriented trends of the globalisation process, and the non-profit aims pursued by the ''development cooperation world'', this article outlines the specific role that the scientific community plays or will have to play in international exchanges in order to steer the fundamental changes that contemporary societies are going through for the benefit of the greatest number." The International Journal of Sustainable Development 2004, Vol. 7, No.2, pp. 99-120 Available from: InderScience
Towards Transdisciplinarity in Sustainability-Oriented Research for Development
Hurni, Hans
In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, Schertenleib R, editors. 2004. Research for Mitigating Syndromes of Global Change. A Transdisciplinary Appraisal of Selected Regions of the World to Prepare Development-Oriented Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Berne, Vol. 1. Berne: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 31-42 Order from: Centre for Development and Environment
Raw milk composition of Malian Zebu cows (Bos indicus) raised under traditional system
Bonfoh, Bassirou
Milk from Malian Zebu cows was analysed during the dry and hot season (March–June) in order to assess its composition and the components variation according to the presence of subclinical mastitis and supplementary feeding. The Zebu cow milk (n=30) was composed of 8 g/kg ash, 43 g/kg fat, 48 g/kg lactosemonohydrate, 37 g/kg proteins and 134 g/kg total solids. One-third of the cows tested positive to subclinical mastitis (white blood cell count >350,000/mL). Milk components were significantly affected by the somatic cell count (decrease of lactosemonohydrate, increase of fat and total solids PJournal of Food Composition and Analysis 2005, Vol. 18(1), pp. 29-38 Available from: ScienceDirect
Répartition de la morbidité dans trois communautés nomades du Chari- Baguirmi et du Kanem, Tchad
Daugla, Doumagoum Moto
Within the framework of an multidisciplinary research and action program, morbidity patterns were assessed in three nomadic communities in Chad. A total of 1092 women, men and children were interviewed and examined in the course of three surveys carried out by a physician during the dry and rainy season. Nomads reporting no health problems were rare. Tuberculosis was suspected in 4,6 % of adults after clinical examination and bronchopulmonary disorders in children less than five years of age. Febrile diarrhea was more prevalent during the wet season when access to clean drinking water was more difficult. Simple malaria was rarely diagnosed in Arabs during the dry season. In contrast simple malaria was frequent in Fulani who stay in the vicinity of Lake Chad during the dry period. Protein-energy malnutrition was observed in only 3 of 328 children younger than 15 years of age. Médecine Tropicale 2004, Vol. 64, No. 5, pp. 469-473 Download
ONG transnationales et experts dans le débat démocratique
Dumoulin, David
"[...] La bioprospection est une de ces questions qui est venue sur le devant de la scène dans la plupart des pays latino-américains à la fin des années 1990, même si, en tant que collecte scientifique de matière vivante (plantes, champignons, micro-organismes, animaux, etc.), il s’agit d’une pratique ancienne et très répandue. Cette pratique peut s’appuyer sur la participation des populations indigènes et de leurs savoirs traditionnels sur les plantes, comme il en est question ici. [...] On voudrait analyser ici la bioprospection non dans ses modalités pratiques, mais plutôt comme objet de conflit politique, de controverse sociotechnique, permettant de faire dialoguer scientifiques, militants et politiques. [...]" Problèmes d’Amérique Latine 2004, No. 54, pp. 95-122 Order from: Choiseul Éditions
Mitigating Conflicts Over Scarce Water Resources in the Highland-lowland System of Mount Kenya
Wiesmann, Urs
The Mount Kenya region offers a great deal of beautiful scenery and attracts tourists from all over the world. What these tourists may not see, however, is the crucial function of Mount Kenya as a water tower for its footzones and adjoining lowland areas. This function is becoming ever more crucial, as populations in these areas are growing at a rapid pace and new land use systems require far more water. These developments have set the stage for increasing conflicts over water resources; to make things worse, water is becoming ever scarcer, especially in the dry areas of the Laikipia Plateau and the Samburu Plains to the north and west of the mountain. This article summarizes the complex ecological and socioeconomic dynamics prevailing in the highland-Blowland system of Mount Kenya—the Ewaso Ng'iro North Basin—and presents a multilevel strategy for mitigating the emerging conflicts over water resources. Mountain Research and Development 2000, 20(1), pp. 10-15. Order via your university library from: BioOne
State actors' livelihoods, acts of translation, and forest sector reforms in northwest Pakistan
Geiser, Urs
"Forests in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan are under heavy pressure. Often, local people are blamed in this regard for their exploitative resource use. The present paper, however, searches for an understanding of the ongoing processes by analysing the livelihood strategies and daily practices of representatives of the local state and donor project experts. Insights show that policy formulation at the provincial capital is not implemented in a functionalist manner at lower levels of the administration. Instead, many processes and acts of translation within the wider context of livelihood strategies take place along the actual practice (rather than the discourse) of policy formulation and implementation through the various scales from the head offices of donors in the North to the provincial capital in the South, to the regional centres and, finally, to the forests in the Hindukush-Himalayan mountains." Contemporary South Asia 2004, Vol. 13, Issue 4, pp. 437 - 448 Available from: informaworld
Knowledge for Sustainable Development in the Tajik Pamir Mountains
Breu, Thomas
The paper presents the results of a multi-year baseline study project in which 10 sectors ranging from agriculture to natural hazards were assessed by a transdisciplinary Swiss–Tajik research team. This knowledge base was enhanced in a development strategy workshop that brought together stakeholders from the local to the international levels. The methodology applied was found appropriate to initiate a broad reflection and negotiation process among various stakeholder groups, leading to a joint identification of possible measures to be taken. Knowledge—and its enhancement through the involvement of all stakeholder levels—appeared to be an effective carrier of innovation and changes of attitudes, thus containing the potential to effectively contribute to sustainable development in marginalized and resource-poor mountain areas. Mountain Research and Development 2005, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp. 139–146 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Migration – Addressing or Importing Risk?
Hamid, Hajira
"Migration across national borders is increasingly being seen as a strategy to alleviate poverty, to reduce vulnerability to crises and to support recovery once a disaster – be it a flood, an accident, or a business failure – has struck. This article aims to shed some light on the relationship between transnational migration, vulnerability and resilience. Whereas vulnerability relates to potential physical, social, economic and other damage, resilience means the capacity to survive, adapt to and bounce back from crisis and disaster (IFRC, 2004). The paper looks at migration on different levels, from individual women and men moving or staying back migrating or staying home, to the national level where aggregate population and remittance flows are counted." SDPI Research and News Bulletin 2007, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 3-6. Available from: SDPI
Les herpès génitaux au dispensaire anti-vénérien de l’institut national d’hygiène publique d’Abidjan
Tiembré, I.
"Notre étude réalisée au dispensaire antivénérien (DAV) de l’Institut National d’Hygiène Publique d’Abidjan avait pour objectif d’étudier les cas d’herpès génital reçus et pris en charge dans ce service de janvier 1994 à juillet 2000. Nous avons retrouvé 250 cas d’herpès génital sur un total de 18 069 consultants soit une prévalence globale de 1,4 %. Les patients présentant l’herpès génital étaient en majorité des hommes (91 %); Célibataires dans (70 %) dont l’age était compris entre 20 et 39 ans (88 %) et exerçant un métier dans 63,70 % des cas. Les principaux sièges des lésions étaient le sillon balano-prépucial chez l’homme (64 %) et chez la femme au niveau des grandes lèvres (71 %). 62 % des patients avaient consulté pour primo-infection contre 38 % de récurrence (2 à 4 chez le même patient). L’association herpès génital avec les autres Infections Sexuellement Transmissibles a été retrouvée. Il ressort de cette étude que l’herpès génital occupe une place non négligeable dans les consultations au dispensaire antivénérien de l’Institut National d’Hygiène Publique, et l’évolution est marquée par plusieurs récurrences chez le même malade." Médecine d’Afrique Noire 2006, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 79-82 Hard copy available from: Médecine d'Afrique Noire PDF Download
Confronting limitations
Huang, Dong-Bin
"Despite continuous investment and various efforts to control pollution, urban water environments are worsening in large parts of the developing world. In order to reveal potential constraints and limitations of current practices of urban water management and to stimulate proactive intervention, we conducted a material flow analysis of the urban water system in Kunming City. The results demonstrate that the current efficiency of wastewater treatment is only around 25% and the emission of total phosphorous from the city into its receiving water, Dianchi Lake, is more than 25 times higher than its estimated tolerance. With regard to the crisis of water quantity and quality, the goal of a sustainable urban water environment cannot be attained with the current problem-solving approach in the region due to the technical limitations of the conventional urban drainage and treatment systems. A set of strategies is therefore proposed. The urban drainage system in Zurich is used as a reference for a potential best-available technology for conventional urban water management (BAT) scenario in terms of its low combined frequency of sewer overflow." Journal of Environmental Management, online since July 2006 Available online from: ScienceDirect
Gobernanza en salud
Hufty, Marc
Governance in health: a conceptual and analytical approach to research "In the Latin American region there is a notable absence of conceptual coherency in the use of the terms governability and governance. This is true for their application to both the social and political sciences and health. Researchers’ understanding of governance varies, and the concept is used heterogeneously within academic circles, with ignorance of the term on the part of decisionmakers and great confusion and ambiguity in the meanings used by researchers and decisionmakers in the health sector. Instead of the prevailing normative use, promoted by most international agencies, a conceptual and analytical framework for governance is proposed here for health systems and services research. Advances in the design of this framework were used to evaluate the public health insurance program in Buenos Aires, Argentina, which allowed the use of the analytical framework to be assessed as a tool for systemizing the social, political, and institutional complexity of the health policy formulation and implementation processes." Cadernos de Saúde Pública / Reports in Public Health 2006, Vol. 22, Sup: S35-S45 Download from: Scielo Brasil
Le développement durable et sa gouvernance
Hufty, Marc
Natures Sciences Sociétés 2006, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 163-165 Available for purchase from: EDP Sciences
Intégration de la population dans les mesures de protection
Hufty, Marc
"La mise en place d’aires protégées est un instrument essentiel pour la conservation de la diversité biologique. Mais elle ne peut aboutir que si les mesures de protection tiennent compte des besoins de la population locale." Hotspot 2006, No. 14, p. 11 Download PDF from: Swiss Academy of Science
Le soja en Amérique du Sud ou le cauchemar de Humboldt
Hufty, Marc
"En apparence, la culture du soja est une chance pour l’Argentine, la Bolivie, le Brésil et le Paraguay. Elle apporte à ces pays une manne financière bienvenue. Mais ses conséquences pour la forêt, le sol, la biodiversité, l’eau et - surtout - les populations locales rendent cette réussite économique dérisoire. Quelques mouvements d’opposition tentent de faire entendre leur voix, mais ils restent démunis face à la demande mondiale de soja." La Revue Durable 2006, No. 20, pp. 46-47 Available from: LaRevueDurable
Les bassins hydrographiques internationaux
Luzi, Samuel
"Alors que le discours sur la « gestion de l'eau » privilégiait autrefois une approche axée sur l'ingénierie, il adopte désormais une perspective plus globale qui privilégie la protection de l'environnement, l'efficacité, ainsi que les aspects politiques et institutionnels de la gestion et de la planification intégrée et coopérative de l'eau. C'est la crainte d'une « guerre de l'eau » qui a permis d'accélérer l'intégration de la gestion de l'eau dans les bassins versants partagés ; les questions hydriques figurent désormais à l'ordre du jour de décideurs haut placés et d'organisations internationales spécialistes des questions de sécurité, et des cadres spécifiques ont été créés pour gérer les relations conflictuelles entre groupes d'opérateurs à différents niveaux." Les Cahiers de la Sécurité 2006, No. 63, pp. 35-39 Available from: INHES
Slums and Urban Development
Bolay, Jean-Claude
"The slum is not only a manifestation of mismanaged urban planning in the countries of the South. The existence of slums worldwide is also a sign that the slum is a crucial element of contemporary urbanisation. This article will attempt to define this phenomenon and understand its causes. Adequate policy responses are then suggested. Without finding appropriate solutions to the housing problems of a majority of urban dwellers, public and private decision makers will not be able to meet the challenges of sustainable development." The European Journal of Development Research 2006, Vol. 18, Issue 2, pp 284-298 Available for purchase from: Informaworld
Décentralisation participative et ethnicisation en Bolivie, 1994-2005
Lacroix, Laurent
In: CESU [Centro de estudios universitarios superiores], CIDES [Postgrado multidisciplinario en ciencias del desarrollo], IFEA [Instituto francés de estudios andinos] , IRD [Institut de recherche pour le développement], Gobernabilidad y gobernanza de los territorios en América Latina, Cochabamba / La Paz: 94-118. For further information, please contact the author.
Treatment of septage in constructed wetlands in tropical climate
Koottatep, Thammarat
In tropical regions, where most of the developing countries are located, septic tanks and other onsite sanitation systems are the predominant form of storage and pre-treatment of excreta and wastewater, generating septage and other types of sludges. The septage is disposed of untreated, mainly due to lack of affordable treatment options. This study presents lessons that have been learned from the operation of pilot-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) for septage treatment since 1997. The experiments have been conducted by using three CW units planted with narrow-leave cattails (Typha augustifolia) and operating in a vertical-flow mode. Based on the experimental results, it can be suggested that the optimum solids loading rate be 250 kg TS/m2 yr and 6-day percolate impoundment. At these operational conditions, the removal efficiencies of CW units treating septage at the range of 80–96% for COD, TS and TKN were achieved. The biosolid accumulated on the CW units to a depth of 80 cm has never been removed during 7 years of operation, but bed permeability remained unimpaired. The biosolid contains viable helminth eggs below critical limit of sludge quality standards for agricultural use. Subject to local conditions, the suggested operational criteria should be reassessed at the full-scale implementation. Keywords Nutrient removal; operation; helminth eggs; septage treatment; vertical-flow constructed wetlands Water Science and Technology 2005, Vol. 51, No. 9, pp. 119–126 Available for purchase from: IWA Publishing
Object-oriented land cover/land use classification for up-scaling agricultural nutrient budgets
Forster, Dionys
In: Bill, R. (ed.) 2007. GIS - Theory and Applications, Textbook for the DAAD Summer School, Internal Report, Volume 16, Rostock University, pp. 177-188.
"Should I buy a cow or a TV?"
Bichsel, Christine
International labour migration has become a strategy against poverty in many parts of the developing world. By remitting their earnings to the families they leave behind, migrant labourers have become a primary source of livelihoods for many of the world's poorest nations. The long-term consequences of this practice on local development are the subject of this study, based on reseach conducted in three rural communities in Mexico, India and Kyrgyzstan. NCCR North-South Dialogue 2005 Download
Transnationale soziale Netzwerke und Migration
Thieme, Susan
"Kann Migration zur Reduzierung von Armut beitragen? Immer häufiger betonen internationale Entwicklungsorganisationen die wachsende Bedeutung und das große Potenzial der Migration. Gleichzeitig hat sich die Migrationsforschung facettenreich weiterentwickelt und befasst sich unter anderem auch mit der Frage, wie Migrationshaushalte eine plurilokale Lebensunterhaltsstrategie meistern. Der Artikel zeigt Beispiele von Organisationsformen, mit denen Migrierende aus dem ruralen Nepal die Möglichkeit schaffen, in der Megastadt Delhi ihre Existenz zu sichern. Dabei wird ersichtlich, dass der Beitrag von Migration zur Existenzsicherung weit über die Bedeutung von Geldüberweisungen hinausgeht." Geographische Rundschau 2006, Vol. 58, No. 10, pp. Order from: Geographische Rundschau
GIS based watershed classification in Lao P.D.R
Heinimann, Andreas
The Mekong River Commission (MRC) elaborated a spatial explicit Watershed Classification (WSC) for the Lower Mekong Basin. Based on topographic factors derived from a high-resolution Digital Terrain Model, five watershed classes are calculated, giving indication about the sensitivity to resource degradation by soil erosion. An analysis of the WSC in conjunction with forest cover data revealed that the more the 37% of Laos can be considered as critical with regard to degradation risk by soil erosion. The WSC allows spatial priority setting for watershed management and generally supports informed decision making on reconnaissance level. In the conclusions the article focuses on general considerations when GIS techniques are used for spatial decision support in a development context. In: Ohgaki S, Fujushi K, Katayama H, Takizawa S, Polprasert C. Southeast Asian Water Environments1: Biodiversity and Water Environments. London: IWA Publishing, pp 43–50. Available for purchase from: IWA Publishing
Forest Governance in Transition
Rome, Sultan-i-
The historic Swat valley in the North-West Frontier-Province (NWFP) of Pakistan and its adjoining area were covered in forest since the earliest times. The nineteenth century proved a turning point in respect to the exploitation of these forests when some outsiders, mostly Kaka Khel Mians, started to exploit the forest in the area and extracted timber for export. Research into the present-day forest issues in NWFP has always recognised the importance of the historical past. However, very little was known about the details of forestry in the areas that comprised the princely state of Swat, and Kalam - both before and during the period of the Princely State of Swat. The objective of the present study is to cover in detail the Walis period from 1947 till 1969 and also the post-State period; and to show how forests have been managed and used in the Swat State areas and Kalam during the period 1947-2005. WP2/IP6 Working Paper No. 9. Zurich: Department of Geography, University of Zurich
Women's right to land ownership in Swat State Areas
Sultan-i-, Rome
Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies 2008(1): 105-121.
Assessing health impacts of the Chad–Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project
Utzinger, Jürg
"Health impact assessment (HIA) of projects, programmes and policies is increasingly recognized as a powerful methodology for mitigating negative health impacts and enhancing equitable and sustainable development, yet applications in the developing world are sparse. Here, we focus on a large infrastructure development in sub-Saharan Africa, namely the Chad–Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project. We adapted a five-step process for HIA, consisting of (1) screening of project documents, (2) profiling of affected communities, (3) identifying priority health areas, predicting potential impacts, and proposing mitigation measures, (4) implementing interventions, and (5) monitoring and evaluation of health impacts. [...]" Environmental Impact Assessment Review 2004, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 63-93 Available from: ScienceDirect
Definition of environmental sanitation system for Hatsady Tai
Maniseng, D
A description of steps 5 and 6 in the HCES planning approach conducted in Laos Download
UESS Assessment Report
Maniseng, D
Project report on outcomes of the HCES project step 3 in Hatdady Tai. Vientiane, Lao PDR. Download
Movimientos piqueteros: alcances de su construcción política
Freytes Frey, Ada Cora
"The article approaches the subject of the significacy of the ‘piqueteros’ movements for the Argentine political field, retaking two habitual axes of discussion in the bibliography. As opposed to the debate about the continuity or rupture that these movements represent with respect to “the traditional” forms of organization of the popular sectors, it is indicated that this type of approach does not allow to understand the complex articulation between past and present that characterizes them. In relation to the controversy on the political effectiveness of its action, it is indicated that they have lastly transformed the perspections about unemployment, archivieng recognition in the public space and generated relevant spaces of social militants." Revista Política y Cultura 2007, No. 27, pp. 121-141. Available from: Revista Política y Cultura
Repertorios en fábrica
Cavaliere, Sandra
"El trabajo interpreta el fenómeno de recuperación fabril como parte del nuevo repertorio de acción colectiva en Argentina. Estudia el Movimiento Nacional de Fábricas Recuperadas por sus Trabajadores con el análisis preliminar de una investigación en terreno realizada entre marzo de 2005 y junio de 2006 en ciudad y provincia de Buenos Aires. Muestra cómo se enfrentaron los problemas laborales con los recursos disponibles y explora el horizonte de sentido en que estas circunstancias motivaron y justificaron las acciones. Así, el repertorio no sólo se concibe como un conjunto de medios para formular reclamos, sino también como una colección de sentidos que aparece relacionalmente en la lucha. Se espera aportar al estudio de la constitución de nuevos actores colectivos al ilustrar los mecanismos de un fenómeno que internacionalmente es ubicado entre las formas posibles de lucha obrera del siglo XXI." Estudios Sociólogicos 2007, 73, Vol. XXV, No. 1, pp. 155-186. Available from: Estudios Sociológicos
Movimientos piqueteros y democracia en Argentina
Freytes Frey, Ada Cora
Latitude. Revista do Programa de Mestrado em Sociologia, Instituto de Ciências Sociais, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, Brasil. 2007, Año 1, Nº 1, pp. 83-100. For further information, please contact the author.
Social Networks and Migration
Thieme, Susan
Based on existing research about the importance of migration, questions need to be raised about how Nepalese migrants live in receiving countries, what individual or structural backgrounds enable migrants and their families to benefit from migration, and what prevents them from doing so. How do migrants manage their daily lives, how do they gain access to resources, and what are their reasons for doing so? The principal aim of the study is to enhance understanding of the process of migration and its contribution to the livelihoods of people from rural areas in Nepal. It also aims to help develop interventions that will maximise the benefits of migration. NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 15 Bern, NCCR North-South
Concentration and monopolisation of seed market: Impact on food security and farmer’s rights in mountains.
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
The common proverb “Save seed in famine and save life in crowd” has even more relevance in the context of corporate globalisation and privatisation of genetic resources. This statement vividly highlights the importance of plant genetic resources in sustaining production system, respecting farmer’s rights and protecting national sovereignty of country of origin of those genetic resources. Protection, promotion and sustainable use of genetic resources for food and agriculture have even specific importance to secure local control over food production, distribution and utilisation system. Therefore, seed has an imperative economic prospect, socio-cultural value, political essence and continuation of viable production system. Download from: Mountain Forum
Bosque Urbano: proyecto modelo de comunidad verde. El ejemplo de Los Guido-Orowe
Perez Gutierrez, Maria Angelina
In: Larangeira , Adriana de Araujo, eds., Regularización de Asentamientos Informales en América Latina (CD-Rom), Cambridge, USA Download
The Tha Chin River is Overloaded with Nutrients
Schaffner, Monika
"Increasingly intensive farming practices have led to a dramatic deterioration of water quality in the Tha Chin River in Thailand. One major problem is the high level of nutrients. According to our model – based on material flow analysis – intensive aquaculture accounts for a large proportion of the nutrient inputs." Eawag News 62d: 18-20. Download
"But now men also listen to the women"
Locher, Martina
Asiatische Studien / Études Asiatiques 2007, LXI - 4/2007, pp. 1113-1139. Order this publication from: Peter Lang Publishing Group
La gouvernance urbaine, du Nord au Sud
Hillenkamp-Buscail, Isabelle
iuéd Working Paper 2007, Etudes courtes, No. 11. Available from: The Graduate Institute
La vulnérabilité des citadins à Abidjan en relation avec le palu. Les risques environnementaux et la commoditization agissant à travers le palu sur la vulnérabilité urbaine
Granado, Stefanie
The article aims to better understand the relation between urban vulnerability, environmental risks, and commoditization in regard to palu in Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire). This research in medical anthropology analyses the local illness palu (abbreviation of the paludisme, e.g. malaria), a bodily experience of non-specific symptoms. Environmental risks are closely linked to palu. They are locally understood as a cause of palu, which, as the illness becomes a concrete bodily experience, offer a possibility of acting upon and addressing these risks. The patient does have the possibility of treating its palu with remedies. Therefore, commoditization of drugs not only represents a source of vulnerability but also offers a possibility to face persisting environmental risks. Vulnerability and its attached meanings are a dynamic concept. Unfortunately, commoditization of drugs implies high risks of over- or mistreatment. In French VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement hors série 3 Download
Rethinking India’s Counter-insurgency Campaign in North-East
Barbora, Sanjay
"The optimism generated by proponents of India’s “Look East” policy and tentative peace talks between armed opposition groups and the state would suggest that there has been a radical change in the government of India’s north-east policy. However, militarisation and ethnic confrontation continue to define the parameters of public policy in India’s north-east. Ethnic violence is accentuated by the existence of parallel political and administrative structures that undermine the rule of law. This article argues that the change in India’s north-east is contingent upon the government’s motivation to encourage transparency in governance and administration and to consciously move away from its existing reliance on archaic military solutions." Economic and Political Weekly 2006, XLI(35), pp. 3805-3812 Available for purchase from: Economic and Political Weekly
Protection: A Means for Sustainable Development?
Wallner, Astrid
The Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn World Heritage Site (WHS) comprises landscapes that are shaped by centuries of traditional agricultural use. Given the dramatic changes in the agricultural sector, the risk faced by cultural landscapes in the Region is possibly greater than that faced by the natural landscape inside the perimeter of the WHS. Maintaining the right balance between preservation of the WHS and promotion of sustainable regional development constitutes a key challenge for management of the WHS. This process made it possible to jointly define the present situation and thus create a basis for legitimising future action. From this participatory process, a link between the concepts of ‘protected area’ and sustainable development in the region emerged. Download
Lease farming in Kerala: Findings from micro level studies
Nair, K.N.
"[...] This paper examines some micro-level studies on tenancy in Kerala, more specifically, its prevalence across locations and crops, characteristics of lessors and lessees, the terms of lease, and the income derived from lease cultivation and in the light of the analysis, argues for institutionalised arrangements for the expansion of lease cultivation, rather than sterner measures to check it. [...]" CDS Working Paper no. 378. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies. >>Download
Livelihood Risks and Coping Strategies
Nair, K.N.
"This paper examines the various dimensions of livelihood risk as informed by a in-depth case study of an agrarian village namely, Cherumad in Kerala. The livelihood risk in Cherumad since the last quarter of the 1990’s has been unique and unprecedented in their nature and intensity. The effect of price risk and productivity risk of crops became an income risk to the farming community. For agricultural labour too it was an income risk with double effects of wage risk and employment risk. These risk have resulted in a general fall in the living standards of people." CDS Working Paper no. 394. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies. >>Download
Agrarian Distress and Rural Livelihoods
Nair, K.N.
"This study examines the impact of agrarian distress on the different socio-economic groups, the strategies of livelihood adopted by households and the local institution in shaping these strategies. The study is based on the data collected from in-depth socio-economic enquiries conducted in Upputhara Panchayat in Idukki District. An important conclusion of the study is that the strategies of livelihood framed in response to a shock could vary across households depending on the extent of their asset ownership." CDS Working Paper no. 392. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies. >>Download
Sustaining Livelihoods in Multi-local Settings
Thieme, Susan
"Worldwide, an increasing number of people are diversifying their income sources through migration. This mobility in most cases involves only parts of the family migrating, and this results in people's livelihoods taking on a multi-local dimension. Scholars have been studying this increasing mobility and multi-locality by applying either a livelihoods approach or one of transnational migration, but they rarely combine the two. However, one major criticism of both approaches is that they do not make the link to other existing social theories and do not therefore permit any fundamental analysis of the relationship between the subject and society, the power relations within a society and the changes human mobility effects to power relations. To address this criticism, I shall discuss existing innovative research and propose Bourdieu's Theory of Practice as a means to fill this theoretical gap." Mobilities 2008, Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp. 51-71 Available from: Informaworld
People and “Territories”
Pattaroni, Luca
NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 20 Bern, NCCR North-South
Milk consumption patterns in an area with traditional milk production.
Hetzel, M.
Revue Africaine de Santé et de Productions Animales 3(3-4):174-177.
Trees, trust and the state: A comparison of participatory forest management in Pakistan and Tanzania
Shahbaz, Babar
This paper attempts to analyse the trust, power relations and emerging conflicts as state and non-state actors try to adjust to their new roles in the perspective of participatory forest management initiatives in Pakistan and Tanzania. Based on historical and empirical context, we argue that the institutional base responsible for enhancing trust between state and local actors is rather weak in both countries. The major obstacles are that the state actors are not willing to fully devolve power; and the responsibility - as delegated by the state - of newly created institutions demands forest protection rather than defining management rights.
Changing Political Context, New Power Relations and Hydro-Conflict in Nepal
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In: Rotberg F, Swain A, editors. Natural Resources Security in South Asia: Nepal's Water. Stockholm: Institute for Security and Development Policy, pp 15-65. Download from: www.silkroadstudies.org
Un rôle salutaire pour la recherche scientifique
Tschannen, Andres
Bulletin Medicus Mundi Schweiz 98: 42-45. In: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Umweltkonflikte – Katalysatoren für Kooperation?
Ludi, Eva
In: Steinmetz, E (ed.). 2003. Naturschutz - (Aus-)Löser von Konflikten? Dokumentation einer Tagung des Bundesamtes für Naturschutz und der Heinrich Böll Stiftung vom 25. - 27. November 2002 in Berlin. pp. 73-81 Download from: Bundesamt für Naturschutz, Deutschland
Making north-south research partnerships more effective
Maselli, Daniel
Global Change in Mountain Regions: Mountain regions cover a quarter of the global land surface, and a quarter of the global population lives in or around them. They are the Earth’s ‘water towers’ and global centres of biological and cultural diversity. However, these important regions are increasingly influenced by various types of global change, from climate change to globalisation. The 200 extended abstracts in this book, prepared by experts on six continents, bring together the state of the art on many of these changes. In: Price M F, editor. Global Change in Mountain Regions. Sapiens, Duncow, Dumfriesshire, UK, pp. 21-23
Conflict Management Over Water Rights in Ethiopia
Arsano, Yacob
In: Baechler G, Spillmann KR, Suliman M. editors. 2002. Transformation of Resource Conflicts: Approach and Instruments. Bern: Peter Lang, pp 451-476. Order from: Peter Lang Publishing Group
Putting soils higher on the international agenda
Hurni, Hans
Soils on the global agenda: The report provides an overview of international actions concerned with sustainable land management, based on contributions from members of the IASUS (International Actions for the Sustainable Use of Soil) network made at the Eurosoil Symposium. It also aims to concretise possible follow-up actions. On the occasion of the ISRIC workshop “World Soils Issues and Sustainable Development” held on 10 March 2006, the creation of a World Soils Council (WSC) was initiated. The report presents in its final chapter the WSC’s proposed vision, objectives, and structure. The report was produced by IASUS, a working group of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS), with support from CDE and financing from SDC. This publication is a follow-up of: A World Soils Agenda In: Hans Hurni, Markus Giger, and Konrad Meyer, editors. 2006. Soils on the global agenda. Developing International Mechanisms for Sustainable Land Management. IASUS Working Group of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS). Centre for Development and Environment, Bern. pp. 4-15 Download
The IUSS World Soils Agenda
Hurni, Hans
Soils on the global agenda: The report provides an overview of international actions concerned with sustainable land management, based on contributions from members of the IASUS (International Actions for the Sustainable Use of Soil) network made at the Eurosoil Symposium. It also aims to concretise possible follow-up actions. On the occasion of the ISRIC workshop “World Soils Issues and Sustainable Development” held on 10 March 2006, the creation of a World Soils Council (WSC) was initiated. The report presents in its final chapter the WSC’s proposed vision, objectives, and structure. The report was produced by IASUS, a working group of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS), with support from CDE and financing from SDC. This publication is a follow-up of: A World Soils Agenda (2002) In: Hans Hurni, Markus Giger, and Konrad Meyer, editors. 2006. Soils on the global agenda. Developing International Mechanisms for Sustainable Land Management. IASUS Working Group of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS). Centre for Development and Environment, Bern. pp. 18-25 Download
The Tajik Pamirs: Towards pluralism: Challenges for governance and civil society
Breu, Thomas
The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development. In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 45-46. Download
Cuba: los escenarios cambiantes de la gobernabilidad
Dilla, Haroldo
In: Dilla H, editor. 2002. Los recursos de la gobernabilidad en la Cuenca del Caribe. Caracas: editorial Nueva Sociedad, pp 159-180. Available from: Nueva Sociedad
The Tajik Pamirs: Negotiating strategy elements for sustainable development
Breu, Thomas
The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development. In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 56-63. Download
Les politiques de conservation de la nature au cœur de l’internationalisation et de la convergence des ordres politiques
Dumoulin, David
Numéro Spécial de la Revue de la CEPAL, Amérique latine 2005, CEPAL-IHEAL, Santiago du Chili, mai 2005.
From statistical data to spatial knowledge
Epprecht, Michael
The display and analysis of spatial information is indispensable to generate knowledge about the location of objects, about spatial clusters, and relationships that informs decision-makers and researchers in Vietnam. Information Development 23(2-3):193-204 Available from: Sage Journals Online
La gestion du chômage défiée
Fernandez Alvarez, Maria Ines
Autrepart (43). 2007: 11-24.
Handbook of Transdisciplinary Research: Idea of the Handbook
Hoffmann-Riem, Holger
Transdisciplinary orientations in research, education and institutions try to overcome the mismatch between knowledge production in academia, and knowledge requests for solving societal problems. It becomes necessary to transgress boundaries between different academic cultures, such as between the humanities and the natural sciences. Furthermore, researchers have to step into problem fields and engage in mutual learning with people in the life-world. In doing so, disciplinary standards of knowledge production are sacrificed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a state of the art for transdisciplinary forms of research. This is best done by learning from experiences. The Handbook is intended to enable learning from exemplary experiences in research and to provide a more systematic account of some cross-cutting issues. This chapter describes the idea behind the Handbook and the contents of the Handbook. In: Hirsch Hadorn G et al, editors. Handbook of Transdisciplinary Research. Springer Verlag. Available from: Springer Verlag.
Transformation of Resource Conflicts and the Case of Woito River Valley in Southern Ethiopia
Arsano, Yacob
In: Flury M, Geiser U. 2002. Local Environmental Management in a North-South Perspective. Issues of Participation and Knowledge Management. vdf Hochschulverlag Zurich & IOS Press Amsterdam, pp. 91-108 Order from: vdf Hochschulverlag Zurich
Klassenbewusste Einbunkerung für jeden was
Baires, Sonia
Los barrios cerrados en el AMSS: una nueva forma de segregación residencial en la era de la globalización Revista ILA 2005, 288:XII-XIII
Participatory Geographic Information System
Hostettler, Silvia
In: Geist H. editor. 2006. Our Earth's Changing Land. Encyclopedia of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change. Greenwood Press. USA. p. 452 Order book from: Greenwood Publishing Group Download Article
L’objet gouvernance
Hufty, Marc
In: Hufty M, Freire A, Plagnat P (Ed). 2005. Jeux de gouvernance: Regards et réflexions sur un concept. Cahier des jeunes chercheurs de l’IUED. Paris Karthala.
Peuples indigènes et citoyenneté en Amérique latine
Hufty, Marc
In: Géraldine Froger, editor. 2006. La mondialisation contre le développement durable? Bruxelles, Peter Lang. pp. 181-197 Order from: Peter Lang Publishing Group
Nachhaltige Entwicklung in Afrika: globale Agenda und lokales Handeln
Hurni, Hans
In: Bearth, Barbara Becker, Rolf Kappel, Gesine Krüger, Roger Pfister, editors. 2007. Thomas Afrika im Wandel. vdf Hochschulverlag AG, ETH Zürich, pp. 123-136 Order from: vdf Hochschulverlag AG
Vulnérabilité et résilience des métropoles
Milbert, Isabelle
In: Da Cunha A, Ruegg J. 2003. Développement durable et aménagement du territoire, Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires Romandes, pp. 313-330. Order from: Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires Romandes Download: Table of Contents
Tourismus als Schlüssel zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung in der Welterbe-Region Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn (Schweiz).
Wallner, Astrid
In: Luger, Kurt & Wöhler, Karlheinz (eds). Welterbe und Tourismus. Schützen und Nützen aus einer Perspektive der Nachhaltigkeit. Reihe Tourismus: transkulturell und transdisziplinär. Innsbruck: Studien Verlag. pp. 197-216.
Comment combattre les inégalités en matière de santé?
Wyss, Kaspar
In: Schneider J, Roost Vischer L, Péclard P. editors. 2003.Werkschau Afrikastudien 4 - Le forum suisse des africanistes 4, Schweizerische Afrikastudien - Etudes africaines suisses. Münster, LIT Verlag, pp. 151-167 Order from: LIT Verlag
Assessment of water quality problems and mitigation potentials by using material flow analysis
Schaffner, Monika
"Material flow analysis (MFA) is a promising tool for river water quality management. Based on orders-ofmagnitude estimations, the approach provides an overview of pollution problems and their dimensions in a river system, allowing to identify key sources and pathways of pollution, and to evaluate mitigation priorities. The current study aims at investigating MFA to assess river water quality problems and mitigation measures in developing countries, based on a case-study carried out in the Tha Chin River Basin (TRB), Thailand." Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Role of Water Sciences in Transboundary River Basin Management, Ubon Ratchathani (Thailand), 10-12 March 2005 Download PDF from: MekongBasinResearchNetwork
Social learning processes and sustainable development.
Rist, Stephan
In: Wals A, editor. Social learning towards a sustainable world. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp. 229-244.
Gemeinsames Lernen in Forschungspartnerschaften mit dem Süden – praxisnah, interkulturell und transdisziplinär
Herweg, Karl
In: Darbellay F, Paulsen T, editors. Herausforderungen Inter- und Transdisziplinarität. Konzepte, Methoden und innovative Umsetzung in Lehre und Forschung. Lausanne: Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, p. 83-91
Improvement of Urban Environmental Sanitation Services (UESS) in Ban Hatsady Tai, Vientiane City, Lao PDR
Thammanosouth, Saykham
The paper aims at introducing the HCES planning approach and its underpinning principles, and illustrates the strengths and limitations of its application in Ban Hatsady Tai. Download
Santé et vulnérabilité des populations défavorisées de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Etudes de cas en Côte d'Ivoire, Mauritanie et au Tchad.
Wyss, Kaspar
Les articles dans cet ouvrage collectif sont regroupés autour de trois piliers de la notion vulnérabilité : (1) la monnayabilité/marchandisation (anglais «commoditization»), (2) les risques environnementaux («environmental hazards»), et (3) fragmentation sociale. À la suite de la présentation du cadre conceptuel emprunté par l’équipe de recherche, chacune des notions est reprise par une série d’articles. Enfin, le dernier chapitre établit une synthèse des différents chapitres précédents tout en élargissant la notion de vulnérabilité et son lien avec la santé urbaine. VertigO - la revue canadienne et électronique en sciences de l'environnement hors série 3: 1-2. Download
Migration trends from Pakistan
Jan, Maqsood Ahmed
There are several forms of international migration from Pakistan towards many regions: North America, European Union states, Persian Gulf and East Asia. These forms of trans-border movement vary extensively over time and place of destination. Pakistan was also among the other countries that supplied work force to European progression towards industrialization in the 1950s. That trend changed in the 1970s when geo-political changes and economic configurations resulted in sharp decline in expatriate labor to Europe. Later that trend transformed into re-unification of immediate family members of settled migrant workers and immigration to North America. Migration to East Asia and specifically to Persian Gulf States is of more significance both in terms of numbers and the new pattern of return migration due to short contractual arrangements. Available from: SPDI
Enhancing Women's Participation in Mountain Tourism, Prospects and Challenges.
Upadhaya, P.K.
Women's participation in mountain tourism in Nepal started during the 1920s and 1930s with portering. It has now reached a stage, though in small numbers, where female trek leaders are leading solo women tourist trekkers; working as team leaders in mountain expeditions; and operating hotels, lodges, restaurants, trekking and travel agencies in top management positions. However, most of their involvement is at lower level jobs in various organized sub-sectors of tourism. Will balanced development of the tourism sector be possible without enhancing the equitable share of women workers in the access to and control over the benefits from mountain tourism in a context where more than fifty percent of total numbers engaged in the industry are women? This brief paper attempts to answer this question. There is a great need for a pro-women (focusing on protecting and safeguarding of women) tourism policy, action plan and programs to increase the number of mountain women improve their status in mountain tourism. Download from: Mountain Forum
The political economy of forest management in Pakistan.
Shahbaz, Babar
Deforestation in Pakistan is one of the highest in the world, despite rigorous institutional changes in forest management paradigms. This paper attempts to provide an explanatory analysis of forest governance and deforestation and its consequences in Pakistan, to examine the interaction between forests and local livelihoods, and to identify the factors responsible for deforestation and the ineffectiveness of state forest management strategies. The paper argues that some of the main barriers to effective and sustainable forest management are a lack of understanding of local livelihood strategies, lack of political will in the part of state actors, lack of sense of ownership of forests by the local communities, and the presence of powerful timber smugglers. In: : Cornin R, Pandya A, editors. Exploiting Natural Resources: Growth, Instability, and Conflict in the Middle East and Asia. Washington DC: The Henry L. Stimson Centre, pp 21-32 Available from: Stimson
The look of and on sustainable development: The role of images in participation processes to establish protected areas
Backhaus, Norman
Sustainable development is not a process that simply happens, rather it has to be achieved and agreed upon by the voters. In both case study areas - the UNESCO Biosphere Entlebuch and the World Heritage Site (WHS) Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn - voters and parish councils have decided in polls to financially contribute to the establishment and management of protected areas that are committed to sustainable development. In this paper we focus on the role that images played in this process and we analyze the potential appropriations of space and use of the regions' resources that are depicted. Results show that there are differences between inside and outside views as well as between the case study areas. In: Siegrist D, Clivaz C, Hunziker M, Iten S, editors. Visitor Management in Nature-based Tourism: Strategies and Success Factors for Recreational and Protected Areas. Rapperswil: Institute for Landscape and Open Space, HSR University of Applied Sciences Rapperswil, pp. 33-45. To order this publication, please contact the Institute for Landscape and Open Space: ilf@hsr.ch
The difficult invension of participation in the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve, Peru
Alvarez, Alex
In: Galvin M, Haller T, editors. People, Protected Areas and Global Change: Participatory Conservation in Latin America, Africa, Asia and Europe. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 3.Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp 111-144. Download
Owner valuation of rabies vaccination of dogs, Chad
Dürr, Salome
Emerg Infect Dis 14:1650-1652. Download
L´émergence du social dans la privatisation de l´eau à Buenos Aires
Catenazzi, Andrea
In: Bouchanine F, Rabinovich A, editors. Sciences sociales et prise en compte du social dans les politiques urbaines: connaissances pour l’action, connaissances dans l’action. submitted Download
Preservation of Modern Architecture: The neglected heritage of modern architecture and why it needs to be preserved
Pimonsathean, Yongtanit
In: Keeping Up Modern Thai Architecture. Bangkok: Thailand Creative & Design Center, pp 80-85. Download
The project process in Havana: A space for pedagogical innovation
Rabinovich, Adriana
In: lapa, editors. Teaching and research in architectural education. Lausanne: EPFL. Download
Conflict Transformation
Goetschel, Laurent
In: Chetail V, editor. Lexique Peacebuilding. For more information click here.
From Transfer to Co-production of Knowledge - New Challenges for Research and Extension
Rist, Stephan
In: Tropentag 2008 - International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development – Competition for Resources in a Changing World New Drive for Rural Development. Book of Abstracts, Univeristy of Hohenheim, Germany: Cuviller Verlag, Göttingen, pp 580. Download
Erosion Damage Mapping: Assessing Current Soil Erosion Damage in Switzerland
Ledermann, Thomas
Advances in GeoEcology 39:263-283
Mapping H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza risk in Southeast Asia
Gilbert, Marius
"...This article analyses the statistical association between the recorded HPAI H5N1 virus presence and a set of five key environmental variables comprising elevation, human population, chicken numbers, duck numbers, and rice cropping intensity for three synchronous epidemic waves in Thailand and Vietnam. A consistent pattern emerges suggesting risk to be associated with duck abundance, human population, and rice cropping intensity in contrast to a relatively low association with chicken numbers..." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 2008, Vol. 105, No. 12, pp. 4769-4774. Available online from: PNAS.org
The tillage and anastomose erosion development in Tajikistan
Akhmadov, K.
In Russian Tajik Agrarian Academy Report Journal 1 (II): 75-83
Stations of the soil conservation research programme (SCRP) in Ethiopia
Herweg, Karl
In: Hurni H, Bantider A, Herweg K, Portner B, Veit, H, editors. Landscape Transformation and Sustainable Development in Ethiopia. Background information for a study tour through Ethiopia, 4-20 September 2006. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern.
Simen Mountains World Heritage Site in Northern Ethiopia
Hurni, Hans
In: Hurni H, Bantider A, Herweg K, Portner B, Veit, H, editors. Landscape Transformation and Sustainable Development in Ethiopia. Background information for a study tour through Ethiopia, 4-20 September 2006. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern.
Einführung zu aktueller Situation in Bolivien
Rist, Stephan
In: Hüttermann E. Ich bin... Lebensgeschichten aus Bolivien
L’Angola dans la paix: Autoritarisme et reconversions
Péclard, Didier
Politique Africaine 110: 5-120. For further information click here.
Les chemins de la "reconversion autoritaire" en Angola
Péclard, Didier
Politique Africaine 110: 5-20. Download
Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Northern Vietnam: Hanoi and Thai Nguyen case studies using the moss biomonitoring technique, INAA and AAS
Nguyen-Viet, Hung
The paper studied the metal atmospheric deposition in Hanoi and Thai Nguyen (Vietnam) using the technique of moss monitoring and combining 2 analytical analyses Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Available from: Environmental Science and Pollution Research. DOI 10.1007/s11356-009-0258-6
Improving environmental sanitation, health and well-being - a conceptual framework for integral interventions.
Nguyen-Viet, Hung
We introduce a conceptual framework for improving health and environmental sanitation in urban and peri-urban areas using an approach combining health, ecological, socio-economic and cultural assessments. Available from: EcoHealth. DOI 10.1007/s10393-009-0249-6
On producing and sharing knowledge across boundaries: experiences from the interfaces of an international development research network
Zingerli, Claudia
In: Knowledge Management for Development Journal 5(2):185—196. DOI: 10.1080/18716340903201538 Download
Negotiating Statehood and Humanitarian Assistance in Timor-Leste: an incompatible pair?
Schenk, Christine
In: Christine Cabasset-Semedo, Fréderic Durand, eds. East-Timor. How to build a New Nation in Southeast Asia in the 21st Century; Christine Cabasset-Semedo, Research Institute on Contemporary Southeast Asia, pp. 31-47. Download
Patterns and politics of migration in South Asia
Barbora, Sanjay
Migration is an important social and historical reality in South Asia. In the past decade, migration from one country to another and internal migration (i.e. migration within a particular country) have assumed different dimensions for people in the region. Contemporary research on migration is placed in a spectrum that ranges from exponents of economic benefits at one end, to those who see migration as a security threat, at the other. This paper combines the work of three researchers and looks at the different political locations from which the South Asian subject is induced to move. It also discusses the economic and political implications that arise from these migration trajectories. Drawing on their research, the authors emphasise the need for understanding how migration is linked to a complex set of processes that reflect power relations in unequal societies. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 313-328. Download
Compendium des Systèmes et Technologies d’Assainissement
Tilley, Elizabeth
Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies In French. Download
Strengthening policies and institutions to support adaptation to climate variabiliy and change in the drylands of East Africa
Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe
We analysed how policies in Tanzania and Kenya address the strategies of agro-pastoralists for coping with and adapting to climate variability and climate change, based on data from semi-structured household surveys, group discussions, policy documents and other material. Many policies indirectly address climate variability and change by focusing on drought, suggesting that some form of mainstreaming already exists. We show that by integrating the perspective of agro-pastoralists, i.e. the majority of the rural poor, policies and pro-poor adaptation strategies can be strengthened. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the NCCR North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 107-130. Download
Migration, poverty, security and social networks: A Central American perspective.
Morales, A, Morales, A
This article provides a critical introduction to understanding the migration–poverty relationship from a different perspective, i.e. by focusing on the migration–livelihoods nexus from the point of view of social structures and people’s living conditions. The discussion presented here is based on analysis of different analytical approaches to migration in Central America and the Caribbean, developed within the framework of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR), an international research programme focusing on mitigating syndromes of global change. The present appraisal provides a broader explanation of the scope of relationships in the development of social life reproduction strategies, envisaging migration as an answer to problems of inequality and as a resource for poverty alleviation strategies, from a Central American perspective. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 417-433. Download
The state, resource governance, and conflict: Reflections from South Asia.
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
The role of the state in modes of resource governance is increasingly becoming a source of conflict over natural resources. Based on studies of resource governance practices in South Asia, this contribution argues that conflict or collaboration in natural resource management depends upon the legitimacy of the state and its interaction and cooperation with resource users. When the state shows a controlling attitude towards managing natural resources, conflict and tension are unavoidable. On the other hand, challenges arise in resource management if the state is too weak to provide a conducive policy framework, institutional arrangements, and a facilitating environment. This article concludes that expanding the horizontal and vertical legitimacy of the state is essential to promote sustainable governance of natural resourc¬es and to resolve associated conflicts. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 299-312. Download
Access to livlihood assets: Insights from South Asia on how institutions work
Shahbaz, Babar
The present contribution is an attempt to understand the conditions that impede some households and social groups in securing a decent livelihood by drawing on ‘purported’ facilitating institutions. It is generally agreed that access to livelihood assets is negotiated through institutions. However, the way in which these institutions operate in everyday practice and in specific contexts is less well understood. The four case studies presented here therefore analyse how customary norms and state regulations work. The article argues that a deeper understanding of the working of institutions, which in turn influence who is excluded from and who is entitled to access a particular livelihood asset, also provides a bridge to evidence-based development support. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 283-297. Download
An Assessment of Trends in the Extent of Swidden in Southeast Asia
Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich
In: Human Ecology 37(3):269-280. Download
A sociology of international research partnerships for sustainable development
Zingerli, Claudia
Summary of conference paper presented at 12th General Conference of the European Association of Development Research Institutes (EADI), Geneva, 24-28 June 2008. In: NORRAG News 40:140-142 Download
Impacts of armed conflict on mountain biodiversity.
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
Nepal's armed conflict (1996-2006) has created enormous impact in biodiversity, the economy and society. This paper discusses only the impacts on biodiversity. The main negative impacts documented from the study were: A loss of unique habitats for wildlife within ecosystems once the vegetation for such specialised habitat were destroyed; loss of medicinal plant resources after the forests were used as battlefields; and severe disruption of conservation activities, leading to intensified unsustainable exploitation as law and order was broken down by the armed conflict. In: Mountain Forum Bulletin 9(2): 11-12. Download article from: Mountain Forum
Interrelationship between conflict and federalism in Nepal [in Nepali]
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In Nepali Human Rights Monitor 5(12): 5-12. Download
Risk perception, risk management and vulnerability to landslides in the hill-slopes in the city of La Paz, Bolivia
Nathan, Fabien, Nathan, Fabien
The article begins by describing the difficult living conditions of many people in the hill slopes (laderas) of La Paz, Bolivia, demonstrating that they are exposed to a combination of natural and social hazards.1 It shows that residents, community leaders and city planners tend to underestimate or deny risk, with important consequences for risk management, such as a failure to raise risk awareness. The article then proposes some hypotheses to explain risk perceptions in La Paz, discarding the usual single-approach interpretations and suggesting instead more nuanced theoretical explanations to account for why people build their homes in such hazardous environments. In: Disasters, 32/3, Autumn 2008. Download
Security sector reform in Nepal: Challenges and opportunities
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
Nepal is in a critical transition from war to peace and is therefore facing several transitional challenges. One of them is transforming the security sector, which has operated within a highly centralized and unitary political system for more than two centuries. When the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) waged an armed insurrection in 1996, the state security system was reshaped to counter the insurgency. Hence, one of the biggest challenges is to transform the counterinsurgency and focus on ensuring that existing security policies, strategies and organizations fit into the changed political context. This chapter argues that the ongoing peace process will not be completed nor will democracy be stabilized without a thorough transformation of the security sector. In: Born H, Schnabel A, editors. Security Sector Reform in Challenging Environments. Geneva: LIT Verlag, pp 165-187. Available for Purchase from: Lit-Verlag
Towards a "one health" research and application tool box
Zinsstag, Jakob
Veterinaria Italiana 45(1): 119-131 Download
The Strongyloides (Nematoda) of sheep and the predominant Strongyloides of cattle form at least two different, genetically isolated populations
Eberhardt, AG
Strongyloides sp. (Nematoda) are very wide spread small intestinal parasites of vertebrates that can form a facultative free-living generation. Most authors considered all Strongyloides of farm ruminants to belong to the same species, namely Strongyloides papillosus (Wedl, 1856). Here we show that, at least in southern Germany, the predominant Strongyloides found in cattle and the Strongyloides found in sheep belong to separate, genetically isolated populations. While we did find mixed infections in cattle, one form clearly dominated. This variety, in turn, was never found in sheep, indicating that the two forms have different host preferences.We also present molecular tools for distinguishing the two varieties, and an analysis of their phylogenetic relationship with the human parasite Strongyloides stercoralis and the major laboratory model species Strongyloides ratti. Keywords: Strongyloides papillosus; Strongyloides vituli; Nematodes; Host specifity Veterinary Parasitology 157:89-99. Download
Specific characteristics in the development of erosion processes under rainfed agriculture
Akhmadov, K.
In: Pathways to Increasing the Productivity of Tajikistan’s Soils [in Russian].
Descentralisazon, Movimientos Regionales e Indigenas-Campesinos en Bolivia
de la Fuente, Manuel
Este artículo consta de cinco partes. En las dos primeras presentamos algunos elementos históricos, que están relacionados con los procesos de centralización y descentralización. Procesos que fueron conflictivos, ya que toda redistribución del poder entre niveles de gobierno y entre regiones supone afectar intereses muy concretos. En esta rápida mirada de la historia hemos privilegiado el accionar del Gobierno, de los movimientos regionales y de los movimientos indígena-campesinos. Además, hemos tratado de colocar este accionar al interior del “modelo” de desarrollo que estaba vigente en cada momento histórico. Texto publicado en RESTREPO, D. (editor), Historias de descentralización: transformación del régimen político y cambio en el modelo de desarrollo. América Latina, Europa y Estados Unidos, Bogota: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, 2006. Download
Livelihoods Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In this book, the basic causes of livelihood insecurity and social tension and conflict in Nepal are documented and analysed and possible ways of addressing these challenges envisioned. We do not claim that this book gives a comprehensive framework for addressing all the challenge this country is facing, but we firmly believe that it will contribute to a deeper understanding of the livelihood complexity of poor people and elucidate potential ways to enhance their livelihood security and contribute to solving social conflict in Nepal. Download
"In the city, everybody only cares for himself"
Bossart, Rita
"Various studies on African solidarity, survival strategies and the 'therapy man agement group' [J. M. Janzen (1978) The Quest for Therapy in Lower Zaire, Berkeley, Los Angeles & London: University of California Press] have suggested that institutionalized relationships in the form of networks or groups afford an individual access to resources, also in case of illness. My study reconsiders these arguments in ethnographic research about everyday illness management. It focuses on a heterogeneous urban neighbourhood in Abidjan and analyses who offers help to whom, and what kind of help people offer to one another. The findings show that social networks play an important but at the same time restricted role in illness management. The main source of assistance in response to affliction is household members. Apart from emotional and moral support, relatives living outside the household and non-kin play only a minor role. The social network offers help only sporadically, and very often the sick person has to ask friends and family several times before she or he receives financial or practical support. The emphasis given to social networks in the existing literature is often overestimated, at least in the case of illness. These findings implicate the importance of strengthening informal and formal security systems, especially in an urban context of economic hardship and political insecurity." Anthropology & Medicine 2003, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 343-359 Available from: Informaworld
Researchers' roles in knowledge co-production: Experience from sustainability research in Kenya, Switzerland, Bolivia and Nepal
Pohl, Christian
Co-production of knowledge between academic and non-academic communities is a prerequisite for research aiming at more sustainable development paths. Sustainability researchers face three challenges in such co-production: (a) addressing power relations; (b) interrelating different perspectives on the issues at stake; and (c) promoting a previously negotiated orientation towards sustainable development. A systematic comparison of four sustainability research projects in Kenya (vulnerability to drought), Switzerland (soil protection), Bolivia and Nepal (conservation vs. development) shows how the researchers intuitively adopted three different roles to face these challenges: the roles of reflective scientist, intermediary, and facilitator of a joint learning process. From this systematized and iterative self-reflection on the roles that a researcher can assume in the indeterminate social space where knowledge is co-produced, we draw conclusions regarding training. Science and Public Policy 37(4):267-281. DOI: 10.3152/030234210X496628
Agrarian Distress and Livelihood Strategies
Nair, K.N.
"This paper examines the household livelihood strategies under agrarian distress in Pulpalli Panchayat of Kerala. It also looks at the relationship between household assets and livelihood strategies. The negotiations of institutions by the marginalized and depressed sections of the society were analysed in detail." CDS Working Paper no. 396. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies. >>Download
Distribution and Transmission of Medicinal Plant Knowledge in the Andean Highlands
Mathez-Stiefel, Sarah-Lan
This paper presents a study of patterns in the distribution and transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in rural Andean communities in Peru and Bolivia. Interviews and freelisting exercises were conducted with 18 households at each study site. The amount of medicinal plant knowledge of households was compared in relation to their socioeconomic characteristics. Cluster analysis was applied to identify households that possessed similar knowledge. The different modes of knowledge transmission were also assessed. Our study shows that while the amount of plant knowledge is determined by individual motivation and experience, the type of knowledge is influenced by the community of residence, age, migratory activity, and market integration. Plant knowledge was equally transmitted vertically and horizontally, which indicates that it is first acquired within the family but then undergoes transformations as a result of subsequent contacts with other knowledge sources, including age peers. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine doi:10.1155/2012/959285 Download
Modeling the contribution of point sources and non-point sources to Thachin River water pollution
Schaffner, Monika
Paper available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969709004628
Indigenous knowledge related to climate variability and change: insights from droughts in semi-arid areas of former Makueni District, Kenya.
Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe
This article describes the indigenous knowledge (IK) that agro pastoralists in larger Makueni District, Kenya hold and how they use it to monitor, mitigate and adapt to drought. It examines ways of integrating IK into formal monitoring, how to enhance its value and acceptability. Data was collected through target interviews, group discussions and questionnaires covering 127 households in eight villages. Daily rainfall data from 1961–2003 were analysed. Results show that agro-pastoralists hold IK on indicators of rainfall variability; they believe in IK efficacy and they rely on them. Because agro-pastoralists consult additional sources, the authors interpret that IK forms a basic knowledge frame within which agro-pastoralists position and interpret meteorological forecasts. [...] Climatic Change. doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9713-0 Download
Dimensions of global change in African mountains: The example of Mount Kenya
Kiteme, Boniface
This paper discusses the effects of global change in African mountains, with the example of Mount Kenya. The geographical focus is the northwestern, semi-arid foot zone of the mountain (Laikipia District). Over the past 50 years, this area has experienced rapid and profound transformation, the respective processes of which are all linked to global change. The main driving forces behind these processes have been political and economic in nature. To these an environmental change factor has been added in recent years – climate change. Kiteme BP, Liniger HP, Notter B, Wiesmann U, Kohler T. 2008. Dimensions of global change in African mountains: The example of Mount Kenya. IDHP International Human Dimensions Programme. IHDP UPDATE 2:18-23. Download
Can Andean medicine coexist with biomedical healthcare? A comparison of two rural communities in Peru and Bolivia
Mathez-Stiefel, Sarah-Lan
This paper presents a study of patterns in the distribution and transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in rural Andean communities in Peru and Bolivia. Interviews and freelisting exercises were conducted with 18 households at each study site. The amount of medicinal plant knowledge of households was compared in relation to their socioeconomic characteristics. Cluster analysis was applied to identify households that possessed similar knowledge. The different modes of knowledge transmission were also assessed. Our study shows that while the amount of plant knowledge is determined by individual motivation and experience, the type of knowledge is influenced by the community of residence, age, migratory activity, and market integration. Plant knowledge was equally transmitted vertically and horizontally, which indicates that it is first acquired within the family but then undergoes transformations as a result of subsequent contacts with other knowledge sources, including age peers. Mathez-Stiefel SL, Vandebroek I, Rist S. 2012. Can Andean medicine coexist with biomedical healthcare? A comparison of two rural communities in Peru and Bolivia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 8:26. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-8-26
This article is open access at http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/8/1/26
Die Bedeutung imaginativer Geographien im Kampf um "Gorkhaland"
Bishokarma, Miriam
Keywords: Strategic imaginative geographies, Imaginative geographies, ethno-symbolic resources, ethnoscape, regionalisation, ethno-regional movements, India, Darjeeling, West Bengal Download
Negotiating gender relations: Muslim women and formal employment in Pakistan’s rural development sector
Grünenfelder, Julia
Drawing on evidence from qualitative field research, this article explores how Pakistani female development practitioners experience their work situations as they are shaped both by local sociocultural norms and globalized development agendas. Grünenfelder J. 2012. Negotiating gender relations: Muslim women and formal employment in Pakistan’s rural development sector. Gender, Work and Organization. Available at Onlinelibrary.wiley
Experiencing space-time: the stretched lifeworlds of migrant workers in India
Thieme, Susan
In the relatively rare instances when the spatialities of temporary migrant work, workers’ journeys, and labour-market negotiations have been the subject of scholarly attention, there has been little work that integrates time into the analysis. Building on a case study of low-paid and insecure migrant manual workers in the context of rapid economic growth in India, we examine both material and subjective dimensions of these workers’ spatiotemporal experiences. Rogaly B, Thieme S. 2012. Experiencing space-time: the stretched lifeworlds of migrant workers in India. Environment and Planning A 44:2086-2100. doi:10.1068/a44493
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Nepal From War to Peace
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
Nepal is formally ending the ten years of armed conflict (1996–2006) waged by the Communist Party of Nepal (hereinafter referred to as Maoist) and the government by signing the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in November 2006, but it is within a complicated transition period because of delay or inaction to implement the provisions stipulated in the CPA. Upreti BR. 2012. Nepal From War to Peace. Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice 24(1):102-107. Available here
Researching the future of pastoralism in Central Asia's mountains: Examining development orthodoxies
Kerven, Carol
This paper synthesizes research findings on contemporary mountain pastoralism in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, based on a longer review characterizing mountain agropastoralism in Central Asia. We focus here on the principal issues that have been emphasized over the past two decades in policy, programs, and projects regarding pastoralism in Central Asia's mountains. We conclude that this emphasis has largely been driven by two unproven orthodoxies about - The extent and causes of pasture degradation; and - The need for decentralization and pasture land privatization. Kerven C, Steimann B, Dear C, Ashley L. 2012. Researching the future of pastoralism in Central Asia's mountains: Examining development orthodoxies. Mountain Research and Development 32(3):368-377. Available here
Die Slum-Tour als touristische Aneignungspraxis: Kulturvermittlung durch eine Exkursion
Backhaus, Norman
Zeitschrift fu?r Tourismuswissenschaft 4(2):181–195.
Effect of repeated application of microbial larvicides on malaria transmission in central Côte d'Ivoire
Tchicaya, Emile S
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 25(3):382-385. Download
How remote are Vietnam's ethnic minorities? An analysis of spatial patterns of poverty and inequality.
Epprecht, Michael
This paper investigates whether physical accessibility or ethnicity is a stronger determinant of poverty in Vietnam. Spatially disaggregated welfare indexes for population subgroups show that overall inequality is shaped by an urban–rural welfare divide, closely followed in importance by sharp welfare differences between ethnic groups. Accessibility to urban areas is a weaker determinant of poverty.The findings have important implications for the targeting of rural development investments. Addressing the factors isolating ethnic minorities from the mainstream economy is likely to be a more useful strategy in reducing rural poverty and inequality than simple geographic targeting. The Annals of Regional Science. doi: 10.1007/s00168-009-0330-7 Download
Molecular Characterization and Drug Resistance Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Chad
Diguimbaye, Colette
"The molecular characterizations of the first 40 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Chad revealed a high proportion of isolates of the Cameroon family (33%), of which one isolate showed a monodrug resistance. In total, 9/33 (27%) isolates were resistant to isoniazid. The implications of these findings are discussed." Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2006, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 1575-1577 Available from: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Palu - eine Metapher im Alltag Abidjans (Côte d'Ivoire)
Granado, Stefanie
Bodily experiences, reported causes and curing strategies against palu (paludisme, malaria) as embodied metaphors in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Tsantsa 2005, 10: pp. 157-161 Download
Between Conservation and Development
Wiesmann, Urs
This article presents an empirical interdisciplinary study of an extensive participatory process that was carried out in 2004 in the recently established World Natural Heritage Site "Jungfrau–Aletsch–Bietschhorn” in the Swiss Alps. The study used qualitative and quantitative empirical methods of social science to address the question of success factors in establishing and concretizing a World Heritage Site. Mountain Research and Development 2005, Vol 25 No 2, pp. 128–138
Droughts and famines: The underlying factors and the causal links among agro-pastoral households in semi-arid Makueni district, Kenya
Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe
"Famines are often linked to drought in semi-arid areas of Sub-Saharan Africa where not only pastoralists, but also increasingly agro-pastoralists are affected. This study addresses the interplay between drought and famine in the rural semi-arid areas of Makueni district, Kenya, by examining whether, and how crop production conditions and agro-pastoral strategies predispose smallholder households to drought-triggered food insecurity. If this hypothesis holds, then approaches to deal with drought and famine have to target factors causing household food insecurity during non-drought periods. Data from a longitudinal survey of 127 households, interviews, workshops, and daily rainfall records (1961–2003) were analysed using quantitative and qualitative methods. This integrated approach confirms the above hypothesis and reveals that factors other than rainfall, like asset and labour constraints, inadequate policy enforcement, as well as the poverty-driven inability to adopt risk-averse production systems play a key role. When linking these factors to the high rainfall variability, farmer-relevant definitions and forecasts of drought have to be applied." Global Environmental Change 2008, Vol. 18, Issue 1, pp. 220-233. Available from: Global Environmental Change
La richesse génétique du Sud convoitée par le Nord
Auroi, Claude
"De plus en plus souvent, les groupes pharmaceutiques et agroalimentaires font valoir des licences sur certaines propriétés d’espèces animales et végétales, s’assurant ainsi des droits de distribution lucratifs. En même temps, les pays en développement, «génétiquement riches», revendiquent une juste répartition des bénéfices. Cette évolution peut être illustrée par l’exemple du Pérou." Hotspot 2006, No. 14, pp. 6-7 Download from: Swiss Academy of Science
Governing violence in the pastoralist space:
Mulugeta, Allemmaya
Africa Focus 21(2):71-87. Download
Effect of washing and disinfecting containers on the microbiological quality of fresh milk sold in Bamako (Mali)
Bonfoh, Bassirou
"The present study aimed to improve the microbiological quality of the milk, from the cow’s udder to the selling point by container washing and disinfecting. The total counts (TC), Enterobacteriaceae counts (EBC) were used as quality indicators. [...] The study suggests that in milk production area, besides udder infection and water quality, hygiene behaviour with respect to hand washing, container’s cleaning and disinfection are the key areas that remain of relevance to milk hygiene intervention." Food Control 2006, Vol. 17, Issue 2, pp. 153-161 Available from: ScienceDirect
Bridging Research and Development
Messerli, Peter
NCCR North-South Dialogue Series Bern, NCCR North-South
Failed state or failed debate? Multiple Somali political orders within and beyond the nation-state
Hagmann, Tobias
Politorbis. Vierteljährliche Zeitschrift zur Aussenpolitik (42):20-26. Download
Material flow analysis as a tool for environmental sanitation planning.
Montangero, Agnes
This paper illustrates how the method of Material Flow Analysis (MFA) can be applied to assess measures aiming at optimizing nitrogen recovery through improved excreta management in Viet Tri, Vietnam. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the application of MFA could be rendered more affordable for planners and decision-makers in developing countries confronted with poor data availability and quality. SANDEC News 6 Download
Where to return to? Rural-urban interlinkages in times of internal and international labour migration.
Thieme, Susan
In: Social Research Center (AUCA), editor. Kyrgyzstan Today: Policy Briefs on Civil Society, Migration, Islam, Corruption. Bishkek: American University of Central Asia, pp 108-113. Download Also available in Russian.
Medicalization and morality in a weak state
Obrist, Brigit
"Inspired by Foucault, many studies have examined the medicalization of everyday life in Western societies. This paper reconsiders potentials and limitations of this concept in an African city. Grounded in ethnographic research in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, it concentrates on cleanliness, health and water in a lower middle-class neighbourhood. The findings show that women are familiar with professional health development discourses emphasizing cleanliness as a high value linked to bodily and domestic health. These discourses have been diffused in schools, clinics and other institutions during the colonial and socialist period. Women not only refer to these discourses, they try to reproduce them in daily practice and even demand them. This coercive yet voluntary nature of institutionalized discourses points to 'paradoxes of medicalization' also found in Western societies. It acquires, however, different meanings in a weak state like contemporary Tanzania which hardly manages to institutionalize medicalization through professional practice. Under such conditions, women who choose to follow health development discourses suffer a heavier practical, intellectual and emotional burden than those who are less committed. This may at least partly explain why many women assume a pragmatic stance towards the medicalization of everyday life." Anthropology & Medicine 2004, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 43-57 Available for purchase from: Informaworld
Espaces forestiers, système de production agraire et dégradation des forêts à Madagascar
Ramamonjisoa, Bruno
"La dégradation de l'espace résiduel forestier constitue un des problèmes majeurs du développement agricole à Madagascar. Malgré l'importance de l'aide internationale dans le cadre de la mise en œuvre du PNAE les forêts se sont dégradées à un rythme de 1,7% par an. Aux lacunes techniques d'encadrement paysan et l'insuffisance des connaissances sur la forêt Malgache (croissance lente, relief accidenté) ont été proposées des solutions institutionnelles qui prônent la responsabilisation des acteurs locaux dans la gestion forestière. Cet article vise à évaluer la pertinence des outils institutionnels et des concepts utilisés pour la protection des forêts à Madagascar à partir d'analyse institutionnelle et spatiale par comparaison des normes juridiques et techniques avec les pratiques réelles (analyse des filières et diagnostic technique) [...]". Terre Malgache 2005, No. 24, pp. 92-114 Download
Origines et impacts des politiques de gestion des ressources naturelles à Madagascar
Ramamonjisoa, Bruno
"An investigation of the impact of policies of the natural resources on Madagascar uncovered a number of deficiencies. A widely recommended participative approach is reaching its limits. The impartiality of the actors involved is at stake. Illicit product networks play an important role in the redistribution of commercial income. Strategies that weaken the role of the state should be reversed." Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen 2004, Vol. 155, No. 11, pp. 467-475 Download
The Impact of Demand Factors, Quality of Care and Access to Facilities on Contraceptive Use in Tanzania
Arends-Kuenning, Mary
The low contraceptive prevalence rate and the existence of unmet demand for family planning services present a challenge for parties involved in family planning research in Tanzania. The observed situation has been explained by the demand-side variables such as socioeconomic characteristics and cultural values that maintain the demand for large families. A small, but growing body of research is examining the effect of supply-side factors such as quality of care of family planning services on the demand for contraceptives. This paper analyses the demand and supply factors determining contraceptive use in Tanzania using the Tanzania Service Availability Survey (1996) and the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (1996) data sets. The results show that access to family planning services and quality of care of services are important determinants of contraceptive use in Tanzania even after controlling for demand-side factors. Journal of Biosocial Science 2007, Vol. 39, Issue 1, pp. 1-26 Available from: Cambridge University Press
From conventional to advanced environmental sanitation
Schertenleib, Roland
"The basic concept of collecting domestic liquid waste in water-borne sewer systems goes back more than 100 years and became in the last century the conventional approach to sanitation in urban areas. Over the years, these sewage disposal systems had to be successively upgraded by additional sewage treatment plants increasing investment, operating and maintenance costs. Although these conventional sanitation systems could improve significantly the public health situation in those countries who could afford to install and operate them, it is highly questionable, if they are economically and ecologically sustainable. The large number of people in the developing world who still do not have access to adequate sanitation is a clear indication that the conventional approach to sanitation is not adapted to the socio-economic condition prevailing in most countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Advanced environmental sanitation is aiming not only to protect public health and the integrity of aquatic ecosystems but also to conserve precious freshwater and non-renewable resources. The Bellagio Principles and the Household Centred Environmental Sanitation Approach (HCES) are suggested as guiding principles and a new approach for planing and designing advanced (sustainable) environmental sanitation systems." Water Science & Technology 2005, Vol. 51, No. 10, pp. 7–14 Available from: IWA Publishing Online
Die Schweiz etabliert ein neuartiges EZ-Instrument
Hurni, Hans
"Bildung und Forschung sind die Schlüssel zur nachhaltigen Linderung der Armut und Umweltzerstörung in den Ländern des Südens und Ostens. Der dazu nötige Kompetenzaufbau vor Ort zur selbständigen Lösung der Probleme ist das Ziel des Schweizerischen Nationalen Forschungsschwerpunkts Nord-Süd (NCCR North-South). Drei Jahre nach dem Start dieses neuartigen, auf 12 Jahre angelegten Programms hat sich die internationale Forschungspartnerschaft mit Ländern des Südens erfolgreich als eigenständiges Element der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit etabliert." Zeitschrift Entwicklungspolitik 2004, No. 18/19, pp. 54-56 Available from: Zeitschrift Entwicklungspolitik
Rural energy consumption and land degradation in a post-Soviet setting
Hoeck, Tobias
"The sustainable use of energy resources in semi-arid rural mountain areas is a common but still unresolved problem, often resulting in environmental degradation. In a post-Soviet setting the identification of possible solutions poses specific challenges. [...] The study revealed that the close interlinkage between local energy resource use and land degradation leads to a paradoxical situation in present energy consumption. The scarcer the local energy resource base, the higher the overall energy consumption at household level appears to be. It can further be concluded that since 1991 energy consumption patterns in the Tajik Pamirs have become comparable to patterns in semi-arid rural mountain regions of developing countries. Like many countries in the South, the Tajik Pamirs suffer from chronic energy scarcity, unsatisfactory supply of modern energy carriers and unsustainable use of local biomass fuels, leading to land degradation. This calls for a reassessment of the energy policy orientation for Tajikistan." Energy for Sustainable Development, 2007, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 48-57 Available from: International Energy Initiative
VIH/sida, genre et vulnérabilité
Kablan, Cléopâtre
"L'une des préoccupations majeures qui apparaît lorsqu'on s'intéresse au VIH/sida dans les pays du sud, est celle de la vulnérabilité des femmes infectées. Face à cette vulnérabilité, quelles réponses une association de femmes vivant avec le VIH/sida peut-elle apporter ? Pour répondre à cette question, nous avons mené une enquête de terrain auprès d'une association de femmes vivant avec le VIH/sida à Abidjan. Cette enquête qui a combiné approche quantitative et approche qualitative visait à cerner les réponses de l'association face aux risques auxquels sont exposées ces femmes. Les résultats indiquent que face à la vulnérabilité des femmes qui se traduit soit par une rupture des liens sociaux soit par le silence imposé par le risque d'une telle rupture, les soutiens moral, matériel et financier constituent les principales actions menées par l'association." VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement 2006, hors série 3, Article 6 Download PDF from: VertigO
Vulnérabilité et résilience des populations riveraines liées à la pollution des eaux lagunaires de la métropole d'Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
Koné, Brama
"La lagune d'Abidjan est polluée par les déchets urbains. Les populations périurbaines, riveraines de cette lagune sont exposées à la pollution. L'étude porte sur l'évaluation des aspects de vulnérabilité et de résilience des populations exposées. Neuf "focus groups" ou groupes de discussion ont été réalisés sur trois sites qui bordent la lagune. Les populations étudiées se disent victimes de "la ville". Les aspects de leur vulnérabilité rapportés par elles sont entre autres les mauvaises odeurs qui émanent des eaux lagunaires, les mouches et moustiques qui se multiplient en lagune et qui leur apportent des maladies comme le paludisme et les diarrhées, les démangeaisons de corps dont les pêcheurs se plaignent. En ce qui concerne les aspects de résilience, des actions individuelles d'entretien des berges lagunaires sont menées par endroit. Le capital financier, humain et social des malades ou de leur famille joue un rôle important dans leur résilience en cas de maladie." VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement 2006, hors série 3, Article 5 Download PDF from: VertigO
Verbreitung der Direktsaat in der Schweiz
Ledermann, Thomas, Ledermann, Thomas
Agrarforschung 15(8):408-413 Download
Improving Small Ruminant Production
Maselli, Daniel
"Livestock production is a key livelihood strategy and a way of life for most smallholders in the Hindukush. Depending on ethnicity, access to land, labor force, and ecological conditions, small to large herds of goats, sheep, cattle and buffalo serve as a primary or secondary source of livelihood. Ongoing deterioration of environmental conditions — frequently due to overgrazing — and the depletion of timber and firewood resources — often linked to demographic and economic pressure both in the highlands and the lowlands—increasingly worsen living conditions. Alternative livelihood strategies and pathways to more sustainable natural resource use are needed. [...]" Mountain Research and Development 2005, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp. 104-108 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Globalisierung und Agrarproduktmärkte in Kerala
Véron, René
"Der mit Landwirtschaftsressourcen gut ausgestattete südindische Bundesstaat Kerala ist seit Jahrhunderten in den Weltmarkt eingebunden. Aber selbst in der heutigen Phase der Globalisierung und Liberalisierung weisen die Märkte für Keralas Agrarprodukte Merkmale auf, die nicht nur internationale Verhältnisse zwischen Angebot und Nachfrage widerspiegeln, sondern von zahlreichen sozialen und politischen Institutionen auf verschiedenen räumlichen Ebenen geprägt sind. Solche „real existierende globale Märkte“ werden im Beitrag am Beispiel von Cashew und Kautschuk besprochen." Geographische Rundschau 2004, No. 11, pp. 18-24 Order from: Goegraphische Rundschau
Costs attributable to AIDS at household level in Chad
Wyss, Kaspar
"This paper assesses the economic costs of AIDS at the household level in Chad, one of the poorest countries in the world. One hundred and ninety-three AIDS patients living in four different regions were found by case identification at hospital level and through community based organizations providing psycho-social relief. They were matched by age, sex, professional category and zone of residence with controls. Costs were evaluated through a standard questionnaire. Costs at household level attributable to AIDS up to death were US$836 per case. Costs related to productivity losses made up 28% of total costs. More than half of total costs (56%) were health care related expenditures, and funeral costs contributed 16%. AIDS cases relied more often on borrowing and the selling of household assets than controls for treatment. Household expenditures of AIDS cases were much higher than control households mainly due to health related expenditure. The response of concerned families to HIV/AIDS implies high costs and for most households, especially in low-income settings, the consequences of AIDS are devastating. Innovative strategies on how best to assist households are thus requested and may include the strengthening of care and treatment services being offered to AIDS cases." AIDS Care 2004, Vol. 16, No. 7, pp. 808-816 Available from: Informaworld
Taux sérique de rétinol chez les femmes nomades pastoralistes tchadiennes en relation avec la teneur en rétinol et en carotène dans le lait de leur bétail
Zinsstag, Jakob
"Human serum retinol and livestock milk retinol levels were assessed as part of a study on the health status of Chadian nomadic pastoralists and their livestock in close partnership between Chadian public health and livestock institutions. Of the examined women (n = 99), 43% (95% CI 33 – 54 %) were retinol deficient (levels from 0.35 ?mol/L to 0.7 ?mol/L) and 17% (95% CI 10 - 26 %) severely deficient (Médecine Tropicale 2004, Vol. 64, No. 5, pp. 478-481 Download
Patterns of consumption and poverty in Delhi slums
Agrawal, Naveen Kumar
Economic and Political Weekly 2003, 38(50), pp. 5294-5300 Available for purchase from: Economic and Political Weekly
Human health benefits from livestock vaccination for brucellosis
Roth, F.
"Objective: To estimate the economic benefit, cost-effectiveness, and distribution of benefit of improving human health in Mongolia through the control of brucellosis by mass vaccination of livestock. [...] Findings: In a scenario of 52% reduction of brucellosis transmission between animals achieved by mass vaccination, a total of 49 027 DALYs could be averted. Estimated intervention costs were US$ 8.3 million, and the overall benefit was US$ 26.6 million. This results in a net present value of US$ 18.3 million and an average benefit–cost ratio for society of 3.2 (2.27–4.37). If the costs of the intervention were shared between the sectors in proportion to the benefit to each, the public health sector would contribute 11%, which gives a cost-effectiveness of US$ 19.1 per DALY averted (95% confidence interval 5.3–486.8). If private economic gain because of improved human health was included, the health sector should contribute 42% to the intervention costs and the costeffectiveness would decrease to US$ 71.4 per DALY averted. Conclusion: If the costs of vaccination of livestock against brucellosis were allocated to all sectors in proportion to the benefits, the intervention might be profitable and cost effective for the agricultural and health sectors." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003, Vol. 81, Number 12, pp. 867-876 Download PDF from: The World Health Organization
Quality and comparison of antenatal care in public and private providers in the United Republic of Tanzania
Boller, Christoph
"Objective To compare the quality of public and private first-tier antenatal care services in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, using defined criteria. Methods Structural attributes of quality were assessed through a checklist, and process attributes, including interpersonal and technical aspects, through observation and exit interviews. A total of 16 health care providers, and 166 women in the public and 188 in the private sector, were selected by systematic random sampling for inclusion in the study. Quality was measured against national standards, and an overall score calculated for the different aspects to permit comparison. Findings The results showed that both public and private providers were reasonably good with regard to the structural and interpersonal aspects of quality of care. However, both were poor when it came to technical aspects of quality. For example, guidelines for dispensing prophylactic drugs against anaemia or malaria were not respected, and diagnostic examinations for the assessment of gestation, anaemia, malaria or urine infection were frequently not performed. In all aspects, private providers were significantly better than public ones. Conclusion Approaches to improving quality of care should emerge progressively as a result of regular quality assessments. Changes should be introduced using an incremental approach addressing few improvements at a time, while ensuring participation in, and ownership of, every aspect of the strategy by health personnel, health planners and managers and also the community." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003, Vol. 81, Number 2, pp. 116-122 Available from: The World Health Organization
Prioritization of prevention activities to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS in resource constrained settings
Hutton, G.
"In Chad, as in most sub-Saharan Africa countries, HIV/AIDS poses a massive public health threat as well as an economic burden, with prevalence rates estimated at 9% of the adult population. In defining and readjusting the scope and content of the national HIV/AIDS control activities, policy makers sought to identify the most cost-effective options for HIV/AIDS control. The cost-effectiveness analysis reported in this paper uses a mixture of local and international information sources combined with appropriate assumptions to model the cost-effectiveness of feasible HIV prevention options in Chad, with estimates of the budget impact. The most cost-effective options at under US$100 per infection prevented were peer group education of sex workers and screening of blood donors to identify infected blood before transfusion. These options were followed by mass media and peer group education of high risk men and young people, at around US$500 per infection prevented. Anti-retroviral therapy for HIV infected pregnant women and voluntary counselling and testing were in the order of US$1000 per infection prevented. The paper concludes with recommendations for which activities should be given priority in the next phase of the national HIV/AIDS control programme in Chad." The International Journal of Health Planning and Management 2003, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 117-136 Available from: Wiley InterScience
Cotreatment of sewage and septage in waste stabilization ponds
Ingallinella, A.M.
"A one year study was carried out in a waste stabilization ponds system where septage and sewage are cotreated. The system consists of two septage ponds which operate alternately followed by two ponds in series which receive the combined effluent. The septage ponds also act as evaporation ponds for the accumulated sludge. The monitoring program was divided in two phases. The results of the first phase indicate that the effluent of septage ponds has an adequate quality to be discharged into the waste stabilization ponds designed to treat sewage and that is possible to use the septage ponds to dry the accumulated sludge. Further investigation is needed to find suitable post-treatment of the sludge in order to use it in agriculture." Water Science & Technology 2002, Vol .45, No. 1, pp. 9–15 Available from: IWA Publishing
Incidence of canine rabies in N’Djaména, Chad
Kayali, U.
"This work describes for the first time the incidence risk of passively reported canine rabies, and quantifies reported human exposure in N’Djaména (the capital of Chad). To diagnose rabies, we used a direct immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT). From January 2001 to March 2002, we were brought 34 rabies cases in dogs and three cases in cats. Canine cases were geographically clustered. The annual incidence risk of canine rabies was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2, 1.7) per 1000 unvaccinated dogs. Most of the rabid dogs were owned—although free-roaming and not vaccinated against rabies. Most showed increased aggressiveness and attacked people without being provoked. Eighty-one persons were exposed to rabid dogs and four persons to rabid cats (mostly childrenPreventive Veterinary Medicine 2003, Vol. 61, Issue 3, pp. 227-233 Available from: ScienceDirect
Health anthropology and urban health research
Obrist, Brigit
"We live in a rapidly urbanising world. According to the 2001 statistics of the United Nations, the proportion of urban dwellers rose from 30% in 1950 to 47% in 2000 and will probably attain 60% in 2030. Almost 70% of these urban dwellers live in cities of developing regions. At the current rates of urbanisation, the number of city dwellers in the world will equal that of their rural counterparts by 2007. In the late 1980s, researchers became increasingly concerned about the combined impact of rapid urban growth and economic recession on the health of a majority of people in African and Asian cities. Several books established urban health research with a focus on developing countries as a multidisciplinary field of inquiry (Harpham et al., 1988; Salem & Jeannée, 1989). It is now widely recognised that urbanisation per se is not necessarily bad for health, but it becomes so if urban governments fail to establish and support necessary infrastructure and services to protect citizens from environmental hazards and from social, economic and political insecurity." Anthropology & Medicine 2003, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 267-274 Available from: informaworld
Engaging anthropology in urban health research
Obrist, Brigit
"Urbanisation remains a challenge in the new millennium and will continue to have important implications for human health. This leads to lively debates in the field of international health, but with minimal engagement of anthropology. To stimulate active involvement, our paper highlights main issues addressed in this special issue and maps directions for future research. Our collection of papers addresses hot topics in urban health research, ranging from everyday health practice to mental health, chronic and degenerative illness, old age and social safety networks, and examines them from a complementary, anthropological perspective. Most priority concerns refer to four core issues commonly considered as characteris tics of urban life, namely, levels of environmental hazards, commodification, social fragmen tation and health service provision. We thus advocate for fresh perspectives, moving from a medical anthropology to a health anthropology, and from risk approaches to frameworks centring on affliction, vulnerability and resilience. Future research should concentrate on comparisons and longitudinal design to sharpen key distinctions, e.g. between rural, peri-urban and urban, use dynamics, diversity and complexity as analytical frameworks and investigate emerging issues like trust and care. With an active engagement in and commitment to urban health research, anthropology can enhance conceptual clarity and contribute to locally relevant public health actions." Anthropology & Medicine 2003, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 361-371 Available from: informaworld
Urban health in daily practice
Obrist, Brigit
"Health is the core value and ultimate goal of health development, yet we know very little about health conceptions in everyday life. Inspired by investigations into lay health concepts in Europe, our study explores experiences and meanings of health in a strikingly different context, namely, in a low-income neighbourhood of an African city. Grounded in ethnographic research in Dar es Salaam, we introduce the concept of 'health practice' and examine health definitions, explanations, and activities of urban Swahili women. Our findings show that representations of health form a set of experiences, meanings and embodied practice centring on the links between body, mind, and living conditions. We suggest that 'livelihood', 'vulnerability' and 'resilience' best capture women's main concerns of health practice in such a setting. All women face an emotional burden of being exposed to urban afflictions and an intellectual and practical burden of overcoming them, but some meet this challenge more successfully than others do. This approach tips the balance towards a positive view of health that has been neglected in medical anthropology. It also opens new lines of inquiry in urban health research by consequently following a resource orientation that acknowledges women's struggle to stay healthy and directs attention to their agency." Anthropology & Medicine 2003, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 275-290 Available from: informaworld
An Urban Monitor as support for a participative management of developing cities
Repetti, Alexandre
"Urban management is a complex process, which requires a sizeable information base and a large coo